Retrieved 5 March 2019.This indicated a decline in the Liberian national economy during the outbreak, as well as an indication that the county of Montserrado was hardest hit economically.The center has a maternity unit for pregnant women with the virus.Retrieved 14 August 2015.On 17 February, the WHO indicated that 2, 600 Ebola survivors had accessed health assessments and eye examinations.Using 2 pairs may reduce the risk of sharp injuries; however, there is no evidence that using more than the recommended will give additional protection.
Ocular problems could threaten sight in survivors, thus the need for prompt treatment.Retrieved 8 October 2014.There is evidence that live Ebola virus can be isolated in seminal fluids of convalescent men for 82 days after onset of symptoms.The alert prompted testing for Ebola at the Dakar laboratory, and the positive result launched an investigation, triggering urgent contact tracing.General of WHO terminated the Public Health Emergency of International Concern status of the Western African Ebola virus epidemic.In early July 2016, a trial for males with detectable Ebola RNA in semen, started.
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Kenema hospital in Sierra Leone reported similar health difficulties.Retrieved 13 January 2015.Retrieved 22 July 2016.During the epidemic some patients received experimental blood transfusions from Ebola survivors, but a later study found that the treatment did not provide significant benefit.It encouraged inclusion of family and clergy, and gave specific instructions for Muslim and Christian burials.
Retrieved 11 January 2015.The New York Times.Retrieved 9 June 2016.Retrieved 27 January 2016.Retrieved 1 January 2015.However, randomized controlled trials are considered unethical when a disease is frequently fatal, as is the case with Ebola.
September 2014 report in the Financial Times suggested that the economic impact of the Ebola outbreak could kill more people than the disease itself.Are Hospitals Part of the Ebola Problem?There was significant criticism of the WHO from some aid agencies because its response was perceived as slow and insufficient, especially during the early stages of the outbreak.This not only takes a great deal of time but also exposes them to the virus because, for those wearing protective clothing, one of the most dangerous moments for contracting Ebola is while suits are being removed.Growth in the regions of Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone was very different over time, indicating that monitoring the outbreak at district level was important.Retrieved 25 August 2014.It acknowledges that the aggregate case load of Ebola could exceed 20, 000 over the course of this emergency.
Retrieved 11 April 2015.The report also noted that competent governance of the global system demanded political leadership and a WHO that is more focused and appropriately financed and whose integrity is restored through the application of adequate reforms and leadership.Retrieved 28 July 2014.Retrieved 16 October 2015.On 16 January, aid workers reported that a woman had died of the virus and that she may have exposed several individuals; the government later announced that 100 people had been quarantined.Retrieved 27 July 2014.
On 12 December 2014, USAID announced the result of the first selection in a press release.Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone are separated only by porous borders and where 70 percent of the known cases had been found.Retrieved 28 October 2016.Retrieved 5 February 2015.In January 2015, the MSF field coordinator reported that Liberia was down to only 5 confirmed cases.On 30 April, the US shut down a special Ebola treatment unit in Liberia.Retrieved 10 November 2014.
Retrieved 21 June 2016.Retrieved 31 March 2014.The outbreak in Guinea, in turn, had begun when a man, who had survived Ebola, had sexual intercourse with a woman and passed the virus to her, even though he had recovered more than a year earlier.Liberia was already in a healthcare crisis.Retrieved 28 December 2014.Retrieved 27 March 2015.Retrieved 11 December 2014.
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Retrieved 8 July 2015.Retrieved 27 May 2015.Retrieved 27 January 2016.Retrieved 1 January 2015.On 22 January, it was reported that this patient was responding to treatment.
Retrieved 2 April 2016.Ebola symptoms may begin as early as two days or as long as 21 days after one is exposed to the virus.Retrieved 24 October 2014.Ebola virus; five others contracted Ebola and died while working on the same study.The leaders pledged to assist in carrying out WHO regulations.Retrieved 29 October 2014.
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Guinea who was being treated in a Dakar hospital.WHO weekly update for 29 July reported a total of only 3 new cases, the lowest in more than a year.It expected the most severe losses in the three affected countries, with a wider impact across the broader Western African region.Retrieved 10 November 2014.Projections of future casesOn 28 August 2014, the WHO released its first estimate of the possible total cases from the outbreak as part of its roadmap for stopping the transmission of the virus.
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ZEBOV vaccine appeared to offer protection from the variant of EBOV responsible for the Western Africa outbreak.Western African countries combined for 2015.Retrieved 3 September 2014.Retrieved 23 October 2014.Retrieved 1 August 2016.Conversation Global Editorial Group.
Retrieved 3 August 2014.November, the WHO reported that, while there was some evidence that the number of cases were no longer rising in Guinea and Liberia, steep increases persisted in Sierra Leone.Retrieved 11 November 2016.Six months into the worst Ebola epidemic in history, the world is losing the battle to contain it.Today, there is not one single bed available for the treatment of an Ebola patient in the entire country of Liberia.He was transported to the US and successfully treated at Emory University Hospital.
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Archived from the original on 28 July 2014.Retrieved 18 September 2014.Retrieved 8 September 2014.November, the day after the patient yielded a second consecutive negative blood test.Retrieved 23 November 2015.While using IV treatment for as many patients as they could manage, they argued that improperly managed IV treatment was not helpful and may even kill a patient when not properly managed.
Russia Beyond The Headlines.Retrieved 20 October 2014.Retrieved 4 July 2015.The drop in cases was believed to be related to an integrated strategy combining isolation and treatment with community behaviour change, including safe burial practices, case finding and contact tracing.UN member states to provide more resources to fight the outbreak.Teresa Romero was found to be cured.Retrieved 9 October 2014.
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Retrieved 1 August 2016.Retrieved 18 December 2014.Retrieved 28 October 2016.In terms of medical literature that are reviews, few articles have been published, such as Shantha, et al which discusses management of panuveitis and iris heterochromia.In September, in the town of Womey in Guinea, suspicious inhabitants wielding machetes murdered at least eight aid workers and dumped their bodies in a latrine.The New York Times.Retrieved 26 November 2015.
With this correction factor, approximately 21, 000 total cases were estimated for the end of September 2014 in Liberia and Sierra Leone alone.Nigerian physician, Ameyo Adadevoh, died.Retrieved 15 November 2014.As of February 2015 a number of rapid diagnostic tests were under trial.Retrieved 2 August 2014.
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Ebolavirus disease syndrome: what do we know?He was treated for kidney failure but was not tested for Ebola; he died on 27 October and his body returned to Guinea for burial.Retrieved 27 January 2016.According to WHO reports, 25, 926 contacts from Guinea, 35, 183 from Liberia and 104, 454 from Sierra Leone were listed and traced as of 23 November 2014.According to the 21 January 2015 WHO Situation Report, the case incidence was rapidly decreasing in Sierra Leone.Retrieved 8 February 2015.
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The outbreak then spread to Sierra Leone and progressed rapidly.Retrieved 28 October 2016.Retrieved 12 December 2014.International Business Times UK.Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology.Retrieved 20 May 2015.
WHO believes that this substantially understates the magnitude of the outbreak.Moon, Suerie; Sridhar, Devi; Pate, Muhammad A; Jha, Ashish K; Clinton, Chelsea; Delaunay, Sophie; Edwin, Valnora; Fallah, Mosoka et al.Retrieved 6 March 2019.Retrieved 26 October 2014.March 2016, the WHO terminated the Public Health Emergency of International Concern status of the outbreak.There is also possible periarticular tenosynovitis affecting the shoulders.She was treated and declared to be free of infection and released from hospital on 24 January 2015.
Ladner, Jason T; Wiley, Michael R; Mate, Suzanne; Dudas, Gytis; Prieto, Karla; Lovett, Sean; Nagle, Elyse R; Beitzel, Brett et al.Each treatment centre is divided into a number of distinct and rigorously separate areas.Retrieved 7 March 2015.ResearchGateSuggested citation format:Osmin Anis; et al.Retrieved 27 January 2015.Retrieved 19 May 2015.Retrieved 20 November 2014.
Retrieved 2 November 2014.Ebola virus could make the virus less capable of infecting humans.It has been suggested that due to the clearing of forest for commercial use, various types of bats namely fruit bats may be taken out of their natural habitat and therefore into closer and potential contact with civilization.Retrieved 16 September 2015.Retrieved 28 October 2016.Retrieved 15 January 2015.However, after discharge Crozier began to experience symptoms including low back pain, bilateral enthesitis of the Achilles tendon, paresthesias involving his lower legs, and eye pain, which was diagnosed as uveitis.
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However, on 23 February, Ms.Retrieved 22 January 2016.In July 2014, leading Ebola doctor Sheik Umar Khan from Sierra Leone also died in the outbreak.Retrieved 13 October 2014.Retrieved 19 March 2015.His eye condition worsened and a specimen of aqueous humor obtained from his eye tested positive for Ebola.The basic reproduction number, R0, is a statistical measure of the average number of people expected to be infected by one person who has a disease.
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Retrieved 3 October 2014.As of today, there is no case of Ebola in Nigeria.Retrieved 2 April 2016.Emergency response to Ebola flare underway in Liberia.In December 2014, a British aid worker who had just returned from Sierra Leone was diagnosed with Ebola.For those being treated at home, the WHO advised informing the local public health authority and acquiring appropriate training and equipment.
UN News Service Section.Retrieved 14 November 2014.Problems he was seeing included chronic pain, sometimes so severe that walking was difficult; eye problems, including uveitis; and headaches as the most common physical symptoms.The New York Times.GDP of the 3 worst hit countries.United StatesOn 30 September 2014, the CDC declared its first case of Ebola virus disease.Even with proper isolation equipment available, working conditions such as lack of running water, climate control, and flooring have made direct care difficult.
The operation led to a surge in the number of cases, with 403 new ones reported between 14 and 17 December.Retrieved 28 October 2014.With the exception of a single isolated case in Spain, no secondary infections occurred as a result of the medical evacuations.Two staff of the CDC were sent to the country to help ascertain the cause of the new cases.The authors went on to state that social vulnerability has multiple factors and proposed a classification based on multiple variables instead of single indicators such as food insecurity or lack of hospitals, which were problems faced by rural Liberians.
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Africa where the disease occurs.Restrepo, Ana Maria; Longini, Ira M; Egger, Matthias; Dean, Natalie E; Edmunds, W John; Camacho, Anton; Carroll, Miles W; Doumbia, Moussa et al.Retrieved 5 February 2015.Also in January, MSF admitted its first patients to a new treatment centre in Kissy, an Ebola hotspot on the outskirts of Freetown, Sierra Leone.They were mostly health workers with one of the NGOs in Western Africa.No formal evidence exists of sexual transmission, but sexual transmission from convalescent patients cannot be ruled out.
With the current outbreak, it was initially thought that a new species native to Guinea might be the cause, rather than being imported from Middle to Western Africa.Finally, a trained observer is to read to the healthcare worker each step in donning and doffing, but must not physically assist therein.Additionally, individuals travelling to the country should avoid contact with animals.Ebola restrictions had halted market activity in Kambia District, amid protests.Retrieved 10 April 2015.In September, the CDC reported that some hospitals had been abandoned, while those still functioning lacked basic facilities and supplies.
Retrieved 28 October 2014.Retrieved 30 December 2015.Retrieved 3 August 2015.The WHO declared the outbreak over on 21 November 2014, after a total of 66 cases and 49 deaths.Retrieved 9 June 2016.Retrieved 21 June 2014.
Not yet known is the length of time that a vaccination will be effective and whether it will prove effective for the Sudan virus rather than only EBOV, which is responsible for the Western Africa outbreak.The authors indicated that lack of food and other economic effects would probably continue in the rural population long after the Ebola outbreak had ended.Retrieved 11 April 2015.Retrieved 14 November 2014.However, in late August, according to media reports, large numbers of new cases reappeared in the region.
On 17 December 2014, a team at Johns Hopkins University developed a prototype breakaway hazmat suit, and was awarded a grant from the USAID to develop it.Retrieved 3 February 2015.While no evidence of the virus was found in his blood, his semen revealed Ebola virus RNA closely matching the variant that infected the woman.On 28 May, the total number of reported cases had reached 281, with 186 deaths.Critics criticized the G7 leaders, saying they were not committed enough in the fight against the possibility of future pandemics.
According to the WHO, 20 cases and 8 deaths were confirmed, including the imported case, who also died.Retrieved 8 October 2014.Retrieved 18 September 2014.Retrieved 25 August 2014.Retrieved 9 June 2016.Ebola, or by contact with objects recently contaminated with the body fluids of an actively ill infected person.
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On 30 January 2015, the IMF reported it was close to reaching a deal on debt forgiveness.The data, gathered during three weeks of contact tracing in August, showed that the third person in any transmission chain often knew both the first and second person.Retrieved 21 January 2016.Retrieved 2 November 2014.GenericIn Liberia, the disease was reported in both Lofa and Nimba counties in late March 2014.Archived from the original on 22 January 2016.
Retrieved 27 January 2019.After about 30 or 40 minutes, your goggles have fogged up; your socks are completely drenched in sweat.The pain is symmetrical and more pronounced in the morning, with the larger joints most affected.Retrieved 25 August 2014.The New York Times.
MSF reported that many hospitals had shut down due to lack of staff or fears of the virus among patients and staff, which had left people with other health problems without any care at all.The WHO may also have hesitated because it was criticised for creating panic by declaring a public health emergency during the relatively mild 2009 H1N1 pandemic.Liberia and Sierra Leone by the end of January 2015 if no improvement in intervention or community behaviour occurred.Retrieved 14 October 2014.MSF reported that acceptance of Ebola education remained low and that further violence against their workers might force them to leave.Ebola infections among healthcare workers in Guinea occurred among doctors.In this unprecedented case it is thought that the virus remained in her brain replicating at a very low level until it had replicated to a degree capable of causing clinical meningitis.
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The response to the epidemic then moved to a second phase, as the focus shifted from slowing transmission to ending the epidemic.Retrieved 15 October 2014.It is suspected that she contracted the disease from the semen of an Ebola survivor who had been discharged in March 2015.Over time, studies have suggested that the virus can persist in seminal fluid, with a study released in September 2016 suggesting that the virus may survive more than 530 days after infection.Retrieved 30 December 2014.The risk of transmission is increased among those caring for people infected.February 2016, when, on 14 January, a new Ebola death was reported in the Tonkolili District.
The New Dawn Liberia.Retrieved 16 September 2014.Retrieved 2 April 2016.Retrieved 25 September 2014.Person of the Year.Boots and aprons can be disinfected and reused, but everything else must be destroyed after use.Retrieved 3 October 2014.
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Retrieved 17 March 2016.Retrieved 9 June 2016.Treatment centers were overflowing with patients while others waited to be admitted; dead patients were so numerous that it was difficult to arrange for safe burials.As the Sierra Leone epidemic progressed, one virus lineage disappeared from patient samples, while a third one appeared.Other factors, per media reports, included local burial customs of washing the body and the unprecedented spread of Ebola to densely populated cities.Retrieved 11 September 2014.
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Retrieved 1 September 2015.Retrieved 23 November 2015.Retrieved 20 November 2015.Retrieved 14 January 2016.Ministry of Health had reported an outbreak of Ebola virus disease in four southeastern districts, and that suspected cases in the neighbouring countries of Liberia and Sierra Leone were being investigated.
Kenema hospital in Sierra Leone, with over 30 years of experience, died after contracting Ebola while caring for a fellow nurse who was pregnant and had the disease.Retrieved 16 October 2014.On 14 February, violence erupted and an Ebola treatment center near the center of the country was destroyed.Retrieved 25 December 2015.Additionally, a designated doffing assistant was recommended to help in this process.Retrieved 21 June 2014.
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Western African epidemic region.Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone.Although the WHO does not advise caring for Ebola patients at home, in some cases it became a necessity when no hospital treatment beds were available.Archived from the original on 29 August 2014.In addition to the loss of life, the outbreak had a number of significant economic impacts.
Markets and shops had closed due to travel restrictions, a cordon sanitaire, or fear of human contact, which led to loss of income for producers and traders.On 1 April, it was reported by the media, that possible contacts, which numbered in the hundreds, had been vaccinated with an experimental vaccine using a ring vaccination approach.Retrieved 27 January 2016.Retrieved 18 January 2015.The Ebola crisis was discussed at the June 2015 G7 meeting.Retrieved 27 January 2016.Archived from the original on 8 August 2014.
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Retrieved 14 December 2014.WHO Regional Office for Africa.For staff, there are areas for preparation and decontamination.Retrieved 1 October 2014.November 2015, thereafter, the country increased its vigilance on the Guinean border.Retrieved 11 November 2014.Retrieved 6 June 2014.
They met with thousands of teachers and administrators to work out hygiene guidelines.VaccinesSeveral Ebola vaccine candidates had been developed in the decade prior to 2014 and had been shown to protect nonhuman primates against infection, but none had yet been approved for clinical use in humans.Retrieved 17 December 2014.Archived from the original on 25 July 2014.Liberia ordered its border with Guinea closed.Retrieved 18 September 2014.Retrieved 2 November 2014.
Retrieved 7 November 2014.Archived from the original on 9 July 2014.Retrieved 25 August 2014.Retrieved 13 January 2019.The most frequently reported symptoms were lethargy or fatigue, joint pain, and hair loss.Michel; Diancourt, Laure et al.
It is one of the most modern medical centers in Guinea.The order in which boot covers are removed, by these guidelines, indicates their removal after the coverall or gown.Kanneh, Lansana et al.Retrieved 11 April 2015.Retrieved 3 February 2015.Retrieved 11 April 2015.Archived from the original on 13 August 2015.
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Retrieved 31 March 2014.Thinking that spread of the virus had been contained, MSF closed its treatment centers in May, leaving only a skeleton staff to handle the Macenta region.The report included an assumption that some country or countries would pay the required cost of their plan, estimated at half a billion US dollars.The Wall Street Journal.Retrieved 12 February 2015.
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GuineaOn 25 March 2014, the WHO reported an outbreak of Ebola virus disease in four southeastern districts of Guinea with a total of 86 suspected cases, including 59 deaths, and MSF assisted the Ministry of Health by establishing Ebola treatment centers in the epicenter of the outbreak.In March 2015, the United Nations Development Group reported that due to a decrease in trade, closing of borders, flight cancellations, and drop in foreign investment and tourism activity fuelled by stigma, the epidemic had resulted in vast economic consequences in both the affected areas in Western Africa and even in other African nations with no cases of Ebola.Retrieved 1 August 2015.Nigeria was the first African country to be declared Ebola free.In July 2015, researchers announced that a vaccine trial in Guinea had been completed that appeared to give protection from the virus.
Protective clothingExamining equipmentThe Ebola epidemic caused an increasing demand for protective clothing.Still experiencing the same symptoms, on 26 August he was referred to a specialized facility for infectious diseases, and subsequently hospitalized.Ebola virus disease were being traced, although contact tracing was still a challenge in areas of intense transmission and those with community resistance.Retrieved 27 October 2015.Retrieved 6 March 2019.Could the Ebola outbreak last forever?Retrieved 27 November 2014.
Cases continued to gradually dwindle and on 7 October 2015, all three of the most seriously affected countries, per media reports, recorded their first joint week without any new cases.On 22 January, the WHO issued Clinical Care for survivors of Ebola Virus Disease: interim guidance.The virology results and epidemiological findings indicated no connection to the epidemic in Western Africa.Retrieved 25 August 2014.Retrieved 25 August 2014.Retrieved 19 December 2014.Retrieved 16 October 2015.
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Time magazine in December 2014 named the Ebola health workers as Person of the Year.ZEBOV Ebola vaccine was used to stop an outbreak for the first time, the 2018 Équateur province Democratic Republic of the Congo Ebola virus outbreak, with 3, 481 people vaccinated.The study concluded that the epidemic would not be as difficult to control as feared, if rapid, vigorous contact tracing and quarantines were employed.He received treatment for malaria, but did not improve and left the facility.The vaccine has not yet been given regulatory approval, but it is considered to be effective and is the only prophylactic which offers protection hence 300, 000 doses have been stockpiled.Retrieved 24 November 2014.Retrieved 22 September 2014.
Retrieved 29 October 2014.Retrieved 9 September 2016.Pan Afr Med J 22 Suppl 1: 21.Retrieved 26 September 2014.Among the aftereffects of Ebola virus disease, uveitis and optic nerve disease could appear after an individual is discharged.
First Ebola virus vaccine to protect human beings?Guinea and Liberia combined.Duraffour, Sophie; Rambaut, Andrew; Günther, Stephan; Keïta, Sakoba; Formenty, Pierre; Diarra, Abdoulaye; Djingarey, Mamoudou Harouna; Aylward, Raymond Bruce et al.Retrieved 28 January 2015.Retrieved 30 October 2018.It is not clear whether the traditional healer was infected with both variants, or if perhaps one of the women attending the funeral was independently infected.Retrieved 1 January 2016.
Retrieved 3 October 2014.Retrieved 16 September 2014.For greater security and prevention of other sexually transmitted infections, Ebola survivors should consider correct and consistent use of condoms for all sexual acts beyond three months until more information is available.Will Ebola change the game?During the height of the epidemic, most schools in the three most affected countries were shut down and remained closed for several months.
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Varkey, JB; Shantha, JG; Crozier, I; Kraft, CS; Lyon, GM; Mehta, AK; Kumar, G; Smith, JR et al.Even before the outbreak, medical facilities did not have potable water, lighting or refrigeration.Retrieved 27 March 2019.Retrieved 20 September 2014.According to guidelines released by the CDC in August 2015, updates were put in place to improve the PAPR doffing method to make the steps easier, and affirm the importance of cleaning the floor where doffing has been done.
Oxford: Oxford University Press.On 9 December, a study indicated that a single individual introduced the virus into Liberia, causing the most cases of the disease in that country.Retrieved 28 March 2015.Retrieved 20 October 2014.Retrieved 31 January 2015.
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They also said that they were concerned about further risk to already overworked staff.Retrieved 6 July 2014.The patient was a native of Guinea who had traveled to Dakar, arriving on 20 August.Retrieved 21 November 2014.Pan Afr Med J 22 Suppl 1: 11.Retrieved 27 January 2016.Retrieved 2 November 2014.
Liberian President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf and the Liberian Government, the determination and vigilance of Liberian communities, the extensive support of global partners, and the tireless and heroic work of local and international health teams.His mother, sister, and grandmother, per media reports later became ill with similar symptoms and also died; people infected by these initial cases spread the disease to other villages.Lagos on 20 July 2014.Public Health Emergency of International Concern.Another study showed that the economic effect of the Ebola outbreak would be felt for years due to preexisting social vulnerability.On 6 August 2014, the Nigerian health minister told reporters that one of the nurses that attended to the Liberian had died from the disease.Retrieved 30 October 2018.
Later symptoms may include headache, nausea, and abdominal pain; this is often followed by severe vomiting and diarrhoea.Retrieved 27 January 2016.Retrieved 14 October 2014.On 12 November, she was released from hospital after making a full recovery.Retrieved 16 January 2016.Ebola virus disease had been confined to areas in Middle Africa, where it is native.Other African countries that were not directly affected by the virus also reported adverse effects on tourism.
Countries with medically evacuated casesA number of people who had become infected with Ebola were medically evacuated for treatment in isolation wards in Europe or the US.Retrieved 28 October 2016.The disease affects males and females equally and the majority of those that contract Ebola disease are between 15 and 45 years of age.After a third new case was confirmed on 2 July, and it was discovered that all 3 new cases had shared a meal of dog meat, researchers looked at the possibility that the meat may have been involved in the transfer of the virus.Retrieved 28 October 2016.Other countries with limited local casesUnited KingdomOn 29 December 2014, Pauline Cafferkey, a British aid worker who had just returned to Glasgow from Sierra Leone, was diagnosed with Ebola.Even where hospital beds were available, it was debated whether conventional hospitals are the best place to care for Ebola patients, as the risk of spreading the infection is high.
Retrieved 13 November 2014.Another study, which was released in August 2015 looked at the health difficulties reported by survivors.In 2015 a panel of experts looked at the ways of preventing small outbreaks from becoming large epidemics.By September, treatment for Ebola patients had become unavailable in some areas.The disease was also spread to Liberia by a woman who went there after her husband had died of Ebola.On 28 October, an additional 3 cases were reported in the Forécariah Prefecture by the WHO.
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One of the biggest dangers of infection faced by medical staff requires their learning how to properly suit up and remove personal protective equipment.The rest of the world can sleep at night because a group of men and women are willing to stand and fight.Bah, Hadja Aïssatou; Bah, Hawa; Worrell, Mary Claire; Conde, lya Saidou; Sacko, Ramata et al.Retrieved 25 August 2014.This acknowledgement was also extended to MSF and the CDC for their assistance.The index case of the new flareup was reported to be the wife of a patient who died from Ebola in Guinea; she had traveled to Monrovia after the funeral but succumbed to the disease.
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Retrieved 29 November 2015.On 26 September, he fell ill and sought medical treatment, but was sent home with antibiotics.In February 2015, a Sierra Leone physician said about half of the recovered patients she saw reported declining health and that she had seen survivors go blind.By 9 July 3 more cases were discovered, bringing the total number of new cases to 5, all from the same area.London Review of Books.Faly Magassouba; Elhadj Ibrahima Bah; Lamine Koivogui et al.Retrieved 2 December 2014.
To reduce the spread, the WHO recommended raising community awareness of the risk factors for Ebola infection and the protective measures individuals can take.Interim Guidance on Ebola Virus Disease in Pregnancy.Retrieved 30 July 2014.Retrieved 23 May 2015.The index case was initially reported to have been a woman from Ikanamongo Village, who became ill with symptoms of Ebola after she had butchered a bush animal.Retrieved 11 April 2015.
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On 21 September it was announced that Brother Manuel García Viejo, another Spanish citizen who was medical director at the San Juan de Dios Hospital in Lunsar, had been evacuated to Spain from Sierra Leone after being infected with the virus.Retrieved 31 October 2018.Retrieved 6 October 2014.Retrieved 19 February 2015.Retrieved 30 October 2018.
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On 23 August, he sought medical care for symptoms including diarrhoea, and vomiting plus signs of fever.Retrieved 9 June 2016.Retrieved 26 July 2018.Senegal, Zambia, and Tanzania also reported a drop.Retrieved 11 December 2014.Archived from the original on 4 November 2014.General Margaret Chan advised against this, saying that they were not justified and that they would prevent medical experts from entering the affected areas.
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Retrieved 11 April 2015.Retrieved 13 October 2014.Retrieved 6 September 2014.Ministry of Health source.July reported only seven new cases.Retrieved 18 December 2014.
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In March 2015, the United Nations Development Group reported that due to a decrease in trade, closing of borders, flight cancellations, and drop in foreign investment and tourism activity fueled by stigma, the epidemic resulted in vast economic consequences both in the affected areas and throughout Africa.However, further studies have shown that the outbreak was likely caused by an Ebola virus lineage that spread from Middle Africa via an animal host within the last decade, with the first viral transfer to humans in Guinea.Western Africa, with widespread and intense transmission.Retrieved 27 January 2016.Ebola syndrome, often severe enough to require medical care for months or even years.
Retrieved 14 January 2016.Difficulties in attempting to halt transmission have also included the multiple disease outbreaks across country borders.Liberia Ebola SitRep no.Retrieved 12 October 2014.Retrieved 8 August 2014.Returning health workers There was concern that people returning from affected countries, such as health workers and reporters, may have been incubating the disease and become infectious after arriving.Retrieved 3 January 2015.
Retrieved 2 November 2014.Retrieved 10 August 2015.Retrieved 18 August 2014.Retrieved 25 October 2014.One of the two, a physician, had worked with patients, but the other was assisting workers to get in and out of their protective gear, while wearing protective gear herself.Retrieved 27 August 2014.
Retrieved 12 January 2015.Retrieved 16 December 2014.Retrieved 4 October 2014.Retrieved 2 April 2016.Retrieved 9 June 2016.Retrieved 15 December 2014.Another study showed that, in Guinea, a satisfactory knowledge had not altered the level of comprehensive knowledge about the virus.
Retrieved 7 May 2015.Hospital workers, who worked closely with the highly contagious body fluids of the victims, were especially vulnerable to contracting the virus; in August 2014, the WHO reported that ten percent of the dead had been healthcare workers.Retrieved 1 October 2014.His death was announced on 25 September.Tourism was directly impacted in the affected countries.
Retrieved 2 October 2014.Evidence is not available yet beyond 82 days.Retrieved 22 February 2015.Archived from the original on 2 November 2014.New England Journal of Medicine, eventually to other parts of Africa and beyond.Retrieved 7 September 2014.
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The Christian Science Monitor.Retrieved 29 April 2015.Retrieved 27 January 2016.According to one study, it is important to have a public awareness campaign to inform the affected community about the importance of contact tracing, so that true information can be obtained from the community.Retrieved 22 November 2014.
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Retrieved 2 April 2016.Retrieved 11 April 2015.February the last Ebola patient was also released.Retrieved 12 December 2015.Ebola in Sierra Leone.
Retrieved 15 October 2014.Retrieved 29 March 2015.Retrieved 11 April 2015.Level of careWHO workers gear up to go to Ebola ward Nigeria, 2014In June 2014, it was reported that local authorities did not have the resources to contain the disease, with health centres closing and hospitals becoming overwhelmed.Retrieved 4 November 2014.
December 2 remaining cases were released after recovering from the disease.Guinea, and died the next day.Ten essential reforms before the next pandemic.Ebola virus disease within the same period.Retrieved 9 June 2016.Five members of the research team became ill and died from Ebola before the study was published in August 2014.Retrieved 14 August 2014.
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WHO Leader Outlines Changes in Response to Ebola Epidemic.Retrieved 8 October 2014.Retrieved 27 March 2015.UnportedThe first person reported infected, per media reports, in Sierra Leone was a tribal healer who had been treating Ebola patients from across the nearby border with Guinea and died on 26 May 2014; according to tribal tradition, her body was washed for burial and this appears to have led to infections in women from neighbouring towns.RNA virus could continue in semen for 82 days and maybe longer.Retrieved 16 October 2015.
Retrieved 8 November 2015.Retrieved 21 November 2015.GenericEbola virus disease is caused by four of five viruses classified in the genus Ebolavirus.Archived from the original on 5 September 2014.Although most symptoms resolved or improved over time, only one survivor reported complete resolution of all symptoms.It is now known that the Ebola virus can be transmitted sexually.
Retrieved 23 October 2014.When the WHO released these estimates, a number of epidemiologists presented data to show that the WHO projection of a total of 20, 000 cases was likely an underestimate.Palmore, Tara; Kabbani, Sarah; Rogers, Susan et al.Retrieved 7 September 2014.November, it was reported by media that thousands had violated quarantine in search of food in the town of Kenema.While experts have studied the mortality rates of different treatment settings, and given the wide differences in variables that affected outcomes, adequate information had not yet been gathered to make a definitive statement about what constituted optimal care in the Western African setting.
Retrieved 23 January 2019.In Guinea, a total of 86 suspected cases, including 59 deaths, had been reported as of 24 March.Retrieved 2 November 2014.Retrieved 21 December 2014.Their recommendations were published in the November issue of The Lancet.On 21 October, it was reported that she had been diagnosed with meningitis caused by the virus persisting in her brain.However, in February and March, it was reported that there was again a rise in the number of cases.
Archived from the original on 21 November 2015.In March, Google developed a tablet that could be cleaned with chlorine; it is charged wirelessly and can transmit information to servers outside the working area.Retrieved 9 June 2016.Retrieved 13 May 2015.Recommended measures when caring for those who are infected include medical isolation via the proper use of boots, gowns, gloves, masks and goggles, and sterilizing all equipment and surfaces.By 1 July 2015, the WHO reported that a total of 874 health workers had been infected, of which 509 had died.
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Retrieved 19 December 2014.CDC staff preparing to enter ETU in LiberiaHealthcare workersIn the hardest hit areas there have historically been only one or two doctors available to treat 100, 000 people, and these doctors are heavily concentrated in urban areas.Retrieved 3 November 2014.Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation.Retrieved 11 April 2015.Retrieved 2 April 2016.Archived from the original on 9 January 2015.
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Retrieved 18 January 2015.On 12 November 2014, Mali reported deaths from Ebola in an outbreak unconnected with the first case in Kayes.ItalyOn 12 May 2015, it was reported that a nurse, who had been working in Sierra Leone, had been diagnosed with Ebola after returning home to the Italian island of Sardinia.Retrieved 4 December 2014.Retrieved 28 January 2015.Additionally, there were two phase III studies being conducted with two different vaccines.Containment and controlNigerian doctors training on PPE by WHOIn August 2014, the WHO published a road map of the steps required to bring the epidemic under control and to prevent further transmission of the disease within Western Africa; the coordinated international response worked towards realising this plan.
Retrieved 11 March 2015.The kits included protective clothing, hydration items, medicines, and disinfectant, among other items.The economic effects were being felt nationwide in Liberia, such as the termination of expansions in the mining business.Retrieved 11 April 2015.Retrieved 27 January 2019.Santermans, Eva; Robesyn, Emmanuel; Ganyani, Tapiwa; Sudre, Bertrand; Faes, Christel; Quinten, Chantal; Bortel, Wim Van; Haber, Tom et al.
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Retrieved 28 June 2015.Ebola transmission outside of Africa.Retrieved 2 April 2016.Retrieved 30 September 2015.In addition, imported cases led to secondary infection of medical workers in the United States and Spain but did not spread further.Retrieved 11 December 2014.
It is not currently possible, for example, to administer intravenous treatments.Archived from the original on 9 April 2016.Retrieved 3 May 2015.Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health.Retrieved 19 August 2015.Retrieved 5 November 2014.Retrieved 9 September 2014.
Retrieved 2 November 2014.Since there are few suitable testing centres in Western Africa, this delays diagnosis.Retrieved 7 January 2015.The WHO based their new recommendations on a March 2015 case, in which a Liberian woman who had no contact with the disease other than having had unprotected sex with a man who had had the disease in October 2014, was diagnosed with Ebola.Retrieved 4 December 2015.
The medical director of a hospital in Liberia reported that he was seeing health problems in patients who had been in recovery for as long as nine months.It has been suggested that the loss of human life was not limited to Ebola victims alone.Retrieved 19 August 2015.Retrieved 28 February 2015.An important part of each centre is an arrangement for safe burial or cremation of bodies, required to prevent further infection.In January 2015, the media stated researchers in Guinea had reported mutations in the virus samples that they were looking at.
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The director of the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases has stated that the scientific community is still in the early stages of understanding how infection with the Ebola virus can be treated and prevented.Retrieved 4 July 2015.Retrieved 21 June 2014.By November 2014, the rate of new infections in Liberia appeared to be declining and the state of emergency was lifted.Retrieved 21 January 2016.Retrieved 5 February 2015.Ng, Melinda; Ndungo, Esther; Kaczmarek, Maria E; Herbert, Andrew S; Binger, Tabea; Kuehne, Ana I; Jangra, Rohit K; Hawkins, John A et al.
The poor living conditions and lack of water and sanitation in most districts of Conakry pose a serious risk that the epidemic escalates into a crisis.Consequently, between May 2014 and April 2015, the deaths of women during or just after childbirth rose by almost a third and those of newborns by a quarter, compared to the previous year.Retrieved 15 July 2015.Retrieved 21 March 2015.Retrieved 4 October 2015.Liberia to move infected people out of their homes into ad hoc centres that could provide rudimentary care.Retrieved 17 June 2015.
Liberia was declared free from the virus on 14 January 2016, effectively ending the outbreak that had started in neighbouring Guinea 2 years earlier.Retrieved 11 April 2015.Retrieved 27 March 2019.In a study done by Tulane University, the Broad Institute and Harvard University, in partnership with the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation, researchers provided information about the origin and transmission of the Ebola virus that set the Western African outbreak apart from previous ones, including 341 genetic changes in the virion.Ebolaviruses: From Ecosystems to Molecules.Retrieved 2 August 2014.Scientific Reports 7: 41613.
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April, a second case was reported in Monrovia.There is as yet no known confirmed medication or treatment for Ebola virus disease.Retrieved 23 December 2015.Retrieved 9 June 2016.In October 2014, the WHO noted that exponential increase of cases continued in the three countries with the most intense transmission.Raoul, Hervé et al.
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United Nations Mission for Ebola Emergency Response.Similarly, all affected countries had sufficient and widespread capacity to bury reported deaths; however, because not all deaths were reported, it was possible that the reverse could have been the case in some areas.In early December, the WHO reported that at a national level there were enough beds in treatment facilities to treat and isolate all reported Ebola cases, although their uneven distribution was resulting in serious shortfalls in some areas.Democratic Republic of the Congo and what is now South Sudan.Archived from the original on 24 October 2014.Research suggests that many Ebola infections are asymptomatic, meaning that some infected people show no symptoms of the disease.SpainOn 5 August 2014, the Brothers Hospitallers of Saint John of God confirmed that Brother Miguel Pajares, who had been volunteering in Liberia, had become infected.
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Retrieved 28 October 2016.An August 2014 study found that nearly two thirds of Ebola cases in Guinea were believed to be due to burial practices including washing of the body of one who had died.Retrieved 8 October 2014.Content has also subsequently been used to update that same Wikipedia articleWestern African Ebola virus epidemic.Language barriers and the appearance of medical teams in protective suits sometimes increased fears of the virus.Retrieved 30 July 2014.
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Retrieved 23 December 2014.Bissau had caused the Red Cross to withdraw its workers.Retrieved 11 April 2015.Retrieved 16 April 2015.For those over 45 years, a fatal outcome was more likely in the Western African epidemic, as was also noted in preceding outbreaks.Retrieved 19 September 2014.
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Retrieved 16 December 2014.Retrieved 28 October 2014.It was later established that a number of family members had also died of Ebola.We want to ascertain whether these medical conditions are due to the disease itself, the treatment given or chlorine used during disinfection of the patients.Retrieved 28 August 2014.Ebola survivor who was discharged in March 2015.
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Retrieved 13 October 2014.Retrieved 26 November 2014.Western African leaders, economic consequences, and a system within the WHO that discouraged open debate about issues such as emergency declarations.Retrieved 14 September 2015.MSF took a conservative approach.
Retrieved 27 July 2014.Retrieved 19 September 2014.Retrieved 8 October 2014.In November, WHO released a protocol for safe and dignified burial of people who die from Ebola virus disease.Retrieved 31 July 2015.Retrieved 31 July 2015.
October 2014, the WHO officially declared that the outbreak in Senegal had ended.Retrieved 16 November 2014.Retrieved 6 March 2019.The research showed that the outbreak in Sierra Leone was sparked by at least two distinct lineages introduced from Guinea at about the same time.Retrieved 7 August 2015.By 7 April, Liberia had confirmed 3 new cases since the virus resurfaced and a total of 97 contacts, including 15 healthcare workers, were being monitored.However, the CDC did further indicate that individuals travelling to the country should take precaution with sick people and body fluids.
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Retrieved 10 May 2015.He died on 8 October.Jan while under observation at a quarantine centre.On 8 August 2014, it declared the outbreak a public health emergency of international concern.Retrieved 20 December 2014.All contacts were followed for 21 days, with no further spread of the disease reported.
During the period of closure UNICEF and its partners established strict hygiene protocols to be used when the schools were reopened in January 2015.Retrieved 9 October 2014.Retrieved 9 June 2016.United Nations Development Programme.Retrieved 31 December 2014.In December 2014, it was reported that the iron ore mining company, African Minerals, had started the shutdown of its Sierra Leone operations because it was running low on income.Full training for wearing protective body clothing can take 10 to 14 days.
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June 2016, and it was reported that by 15 July, the country had discontinued testing corpses for the virus.Retrieved 10 December 2014.The panel outlined 10 recommendations for the prevention and handling of future infectious disease outbreaks.Projections of future cases should also reflect the possibility that deforestation might have a hand in terms of the more recent Ebola outbreaks.May 2015, after 42 days without any further cases being recorded.As at May 2015, the country remained on high alert against recurrence of the disease.Also, if the massive decline in economic activity persisted, the authors suggested a focus on economic recovery in addition to support for the healthcare system.
American citizen who became infected with Ebola while he was working at an Ebola treatment center in Sierra Leone.Retrieved 7 September 2014.Emile Ouamouno, who died in December 2013 in the village of Méliandou, Guéckédou Prefecture, Guinea, was the index case of the Western African epidemic.Osterholm, MT; Moore, KA; Kelley, NS; Brosseau, LM; Wong, G; Murphy, FA; Peters, CJ; LeDuc, JW et al.Retrieved 17 December 2015.
Retrieved 1 September 2014.Retrieved 30 January 2015.Retrieved 10 December 2015.Furthermore, most past epidemics had occurred in remote regions, but this outbreak spread to large urban areas, which had increased the number of contacts an infected person might have and made transmission harder to track and break.Retrieved 3 February 2015.Investigations indicated that the deceased was a female student from Lunsar, in Port Loko District who had gone to Kambia District on 28 December 2015 before returning symptomatic.As the main epidemic was coming to an end in December 2015, the UN announced that 22, 000 children had lost one or both parents to Ebola.
Retrieved 24 October 2014.Retrieved 28 July 2014.Retrieved 6 March 2019.Retrieved 4 October 2014.Ebola control is hindered by the fact that current diagnostic tests require specialised equipment and highly trained personnel.The next 3 cases were related to the imam as well: a man who had visited the imam while he was in hospital, his wife and his son.
Retrieved 6 February 2015.Retrieved 9 July 2015.Pasteur Clinic nurse who had died from the Ebola virus.Retrieved 16 April 2015.Retrieved 19 April 2015.In January 2015, a new treatment and research center was built by Rusal and Russia in the city of Kindia in Guinea.Retrieved 19 December 2014.
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Retrieved 15 September 2014.October 2014 showed that this had been a rare symptom in the Western African outbreak.With regard to ocular problems, sensitivity to light and blurry vision have been indicated among survivors.However, in October 2015, she again became critically ill and was diagnosed with meningitis.Retrieved 23 October 2014.Retrieved 23 March 2015.Retrieved 9 June 2016.
Retrieved 22 November 2014.On 10 September, it was reported that the student had recovered but health officials continued to monitor his contacts for 21 days.Retrieved 16 September 2014.Western Africa, and only they have the skills and equipment to diagnose conditions like uveitis that affect the inner chambers of the eye.However, later findings suggested that there may have been several previous cases, and it was reported that pigs in the village may have been infected with Ebola some time before the first human case occurred.There were also reports that adequate personal protection equipment was not being provided for medical personnel.Archived from the original on 6 October 2014.
SES areas who were infected as well.By 17 July, the total number of suspected cases in the country stood at 442, surpassing those in Guinea and Liberia.With the use of heat maps, it was determined that the outbreak did not uniformly unfold over the affected community areas.Santibanez, Scott et al.License:This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction, provided the original author and source are credited.
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She had also visited Bombali District to consult a herbalist, and had later gone to a government hospital in Magburaka.June 2016, 42 days after the last case tested negative on 28 April 2016 in Monrovia.Retrieved 14 August 2014.Retrieved 7 August 2014.October 2014, when a physician, who had treated Ebola patients in Western Africa, himself tested positive for the virus.The WHO has been widely criticised for its delay in taking action to address the epidemic.UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.
Ebola virus syndromeThere are at least 17, 000 people who have survived infection from the Ebola virus in Western Africa; some of them have reported lingering health effects.Ebola patients was insufficient by the equivalent of 2, 122 beds; however, by December 2014 there were enough beds to treat and isolate all reported cases, although the uneven distribution of cases was resulting in serious shortfalls in some areas.Retrieved 7 December 2015.Retrieved 21 November 2015.WikiversityArticle informationFirst submitted: 30 Oct 2018Accepted: 11 May 2019Reviewer commentsAuthor info:PDF: DownloadDOI: 10.Retrieved 4 July 2014.Ebola accurately was reported.
Retrieved 7 September 2014.On 23 September 2014, the WHO revised their previous projection, stating that they expected the number of Ebola cases in Western Africa to be in excess of 20, 000 by 2 November 2014.Extreme poverty, dysfunctional healthcare systems, distrust of government after years of armed conflict, and the delay in responding for several months, all contributed to the failure to control the epidemic.Retrieved 21 September 2015.Retrieved 3 June 2015.Retrieved 29 January 2015.
Retrieved 26 September 2015.Seck, for their response in quickly isolating the patient and tracing and following up 74 contacts, as well as for their public awareness campaign.The capital city Monrovia suffered construction and restaurant unemployment the most, while outside the capital, the food and beverage sectors suffered economically.Retrieved 10 May 2015.Thus, these early cases were diagnosed as other conditions more common to the area and the disease had several months to spread before it became recognized as Ebola.
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Retrieved 12 January 2015.Whole communities have disappeared but many of them are not in the statistics.Staff who have returned from deployments to Western Africa say the clothing is so heavy that it can be worn for only about 40 minutes at a stretch.Retrieved 14 January 2019.Retrieved 11 April 2015.The New York Times.
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Retrieved 8 October 2014.Ebola will simmer along, become native and be a problem for Africa and the world, for years to come.Guinea had a list of key religious leaders who promoted safe and dignified burials.The New York Times.United Kingdom and Italy.Health workers change garments frequently, discarding gear that has barely been used.In March, after two weeks of not reporting any new cases, 3 new cases were confirmed.
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These patients will need medical care for months and maybe years.ZEBOV had been found to protect people who had been exposed to cases of Ebola.According to an October 2015 report by the CDC, Guinean healthcare workers had 42.Retrieved 20 March 2015.Retrieved 11 April 2015.
Retrieved 2 December 2014.In September and December 2014, the WHO released revised and more accurate CFR figures of 70.Retrieved 27 January 2019.He was evacuated to Spain and died on 12 August.In March 2015, the CDC interviewed the survivors; they all reported having had at least one adverse symptom during their recovery period.
Retrieved 11 April 2015.Retrieved 14 September 2015.Open Government LicenceA number of Ebola Treatment Centres were set up in the area, supported by international aid organisations and staffed by a combination of local and international staff.Retrieved 9 October 2015.On 4 April, it was reported that 84 individuals were under observation due to contact with the 2 confirmed Ebola cases.Retrieved 9 August 2015.
Retrieved 14 April 2015.Retrieved 24 October 2014.On 27 July, President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf announced that Liberia would close its borders, with the exception of a few crossing points such as the airport, where screening centres would be established.While the vaccine had shown high efficacy in individuals, more conclusive evidence was needed regarding its capacity to protect populations through herd immunity.Retrieved 28 October 2016.Without sufficient staff to care for patients, needles may become dislodged or pulled out by a delirious patient.Retrieved 1 October 2014.
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Retrieved 22 September 2014.He was treated at Spallanzani Hospital, the national reference center for Ebola patients.People do not think to wash their hands when they do not have enough water to drink.Inserting an IV needle while wearing three pairs of gloves and goggles that may be fogged is difficult, and once in place, the IV site and line must be constantly monitored.October, all of the 15 Liberian districts had reported Ebola cases.
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Retrieved 5 January 2015.This new device allows for the use of portable instruments that can provide immediate diagnosis.Retrieved 12 August 2014.Retrieved 16 September 2014.Retrieved 2 April 2016.Retrieved 10 April 2015.
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Countries affected to date simply do not have the capacity to manage an outbreak of this size and complexity on their own.Retrieved 6 March 2019.Retrieved 18 September 2014.Her father had worked for the Red Cross in Guinea and also in a private health clinic; he had died earlier in the month, likely from an Ebola infection contracted in the private clinic.Retrieved 26 January 2019.Many hospitals had to shut down, leaving people with other medical needs without care.
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From August through December 2014, a total of 10 patients with Ebola were treated in US hospitals; of these patients, 8 survived.Retrieved 22 October 2014.Retrieved 20 September 2015.Retrieved 22 December 2015.Retrieved 8 October 2015.Other economic impacts were as follows:In August 2014 it was reported that many airlines had suspended flights to the area.
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Retrieved 11 April 2015.Speaking from a remote region, an MSF worker said that a shortage of protective equipment was making the medical management of the disease difficult and that they had limited capacity to safely bury bodies.Bats drop partially eaten fruit and pulp, then land mammals such as gorillas and duikers feed on these fallen fruit.Retrieved 23 January 2019.Retrieved 14 August 2014.
Retrieved 29 October 2016.Pan Afr Med J 22 Suppl 1: 17.Pan Afr Med J 22 Suppl 1: 24.Wikipedia Emerges as Trusted Internet Source for Ebola Information By Noam Cohen.Retrieved 20 October 2014.Retrieved 26 December 2015.
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However, administration of IV fluids is difficult in the African environment.Care settings that have access to medical expertise may increase survival by providing good maintenance of hydration, circulatory volume, and blood pressure.Retrieved 18 December 2014.Retrieved 28 October 2016.Retrieved 6 December 2014.Surveillance and contact tracingContact tracing is an essential method of preventing the spread of the disease, this requires effective community surveillance so that a possible case of Ebola can be registered and accurately diagnosed as soon as possible, and subsequently finding everyone who has had close contact with the case and tracking them for 21 days.
Retrieved 7 April 2016.Retrieved 11 April 2015.Ivoire, which had resulted in one human transmission in 1994.Retrieved 25 August 2014.Movement of people away from affected areas disturbed agricultural activities.
Retrieved 9 June 2016.Retrieved 18 September 2014.Denial in some affected countries also made containment efforts difficult.Retrieved 8 March 2015.Retrieved 6 April 2016.
Retrieved 1 July 2015.Retrieved 21 March 2015.Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.Scientific Reports 5: 14494.Retrieved 9 September 2015.Retrieved 11 April 2015.
Retrieved 11 April 2015.Retrieved 25 August 2014.The international community must ensure that those who try to contain the outbreak can enter and leave the affected countries if need be.Lilburn, Paul; Shetty, Nandini; Brooks, Tim; Simpson, Andrew; Bentley, Neil; Lado, Marta et al.Retrieved 28 August 2014.Retrieved 5 November 2014.
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October, the last district in Sierra Leone untouched by the disease had declared Ebola cases.Retrieved 8 October 2015.Archived from the original on 2 April 2015.Retrieved 7 April 2016.The following day, Sierra Leone confirmed its first new case since September 2015.Retrieved 2 January 2015.
In some places affected by the outbreak, care may have been provided in clinics with limited resources, and workers could be in these areas for several hours with a number of Ebola infected patients.Retrieved 4 October 2014.December 2014 found that transmission of the Ebola virus occurs principally within families, in hospitals and at funerals.The woman was treated and in November 2015 it was reported that she had recovered.Retrieved 25 September 2014.Retrieved 3 November 2014.Office of Science and Technology Policy.
These include avoiding contact with infected people and regular hand washing using soap and water.The vaccine has not yet had regulatory approval, but it is considered to be so effective that 300, 000 doses have already been stockpiled.Retrieved 2 May 2015.Retrieved 2 April 2016.In December 2015, the CDC indicated that it would no longer make the recommendation for US citizens going to Sierra Leone to be extra careful.Retrieved 26 November 2014.
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And at that point, you have to exit for your own safety.The WHO recommends the use of 2 pairs of gloves, with the outer pair worn over the gown.Retrieved 7 November 2014.On 18 December, the WHO indicated that it still considered Ebola in Western Africa a public health emergency, though progress had been made.Retrieved 16 April 2015.
Retrieved 6 October 2014.Retrieved 23 November 2015.Retrieved 30 July 2015.Retrieved 14 September 2015.The number of cases peaked in October 2014 and then began to decline gradually, following the commitment of substantial international resources.Retrieved 28 October 2016.Gaveau, David et al.
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Liberia Ministry of Health and Social Welfare.Genetic sequencing revealed that this outbreak was caused by the Zaire Ebola species, which is native to the DRC; there have been seven previous Ebola outbreaks in the country since 1976.This chain of events forms a possible indirect means of transmission from the natural host to animal populations.Retrieved 7 June 2015.He returned to the hospital by ambulance on 28 September and was placed in isolation and tested for Ebola.
As the epidemic progressed, a small outbreak occurred in Nigeria that resulted in 20 cases and another in Mali with 7 cases.The Committee remains deeply concerned that 34 countries still enact inappropriate travel and transport measures and highlights the need to immediately terminate any such measures due to their negative impact, particularly on recovery efforts.Retrieved 20 December 2015.Retrieved 24 November 2015.Retrieved 31 May 2015.
In September 2016, findings were published suggesting that the resurgence in Guinea was caused by an Ebola survivor who, after eight months of abstinence, had sexual relations with several partners, including the first victim in the new outbreak.Retrieved 5 October 2014.Retrieved 12 November 2014.The US accepted four evacuees and three were flown to Germany.International Many countries considered imposing travel restrictions to or from the region.Retrieved 21 May 2015.It disclosed that Thomas Eric Duncan became infected in Liberia and traveled to Dallas, Texas on 20 September.
Retrieved 21 November 2015.Retrieved 26 November 2015.Retrieved 7 February 2015.Retrieved 2 November 2014.Retrieved 16 September 2014.Red Cross staff were forced to suspend operations in southeast Guinea after they were threatened by a group of men armed with knives.
Retrieved 21 September 2014.Farmer suggested that every treatment facility should have a team that specializes in inserting IVs, or better yet, peripherally inserted central catheter lines.The IMF has been criticised for its lack of assistance in the efforts to combat the epidemic.Retrieved 22 May 2015.
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