Brief History of Europe/Print version - Wikibooks, open books for an open world

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After 1440, the Austrian monarch usually held the office of Holy Roman Emperor.Visigothic Kingdom including much of Iberia and what would become southern France.Sunni Islam dynasty of Turkic mamluk origins.

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Some temporary 18th century occupations, including: the Banat of Temeswar, Oltenia, the Duchy of Parma, Venetia, and some Serbian occupations.Bourbon Spain: from 1700, members of the House of Bourbon dynasty ruled Spain, beginning with Philip of Anjou, who would rule as Philip V of Spain; the Spanish Empire included territories in the New World and Europe.It was the last period of classical antiquity, and overlaps with some of the Early Middle Ages.The war marked the advent of air supremacy and nuclear warfare.It is assumed that the old Asturian kingdom was divided between the three sons of Alfonso III of Asturias, into the kingdoms of León, Asturias and Galicia.Germany avoided the stronger Maginot Line fortifications by invading through the Ardennes forest.

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Francis I was of the House of Lorraine and Archduke of Austria.War also had theaters in North America, West Indies, West Africa, India, and Uruguay and Rio Grande do Sul.Iran and Afghanistan, and the northern Indian subcontinent all the way to Bengal.Henry VII was distantly related to John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, through his mother; and he married Elizabeth of York, the daughter of Edward IV; his emblem, the Tudor rose, combined the red and white roses of Lancaster and York.The modern period was after the Middle Ages, circa 1500.

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Conceptual art emerged late 20th century; new concepts and ideas take precedence over traditional craftsmanship.Denis Diderot, was a great success of the period.It created the Potsdam Declaration on the surrender of Japan, and a policy for Germany.Partitions of Poland10.Castile and Aragon, although Joanna remained imprisoned after being pronounced insane.

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It was a short lived state of territory between West and East Francia.Balkans, before falling to the Byzantine Empire.Hungarian, German, Ottoman, and Russian Empires ceased to exist.In 1783 the British capitulated to the Americans, and signed the Treaty of Paris.Czechoslovakia, resulting in Warsaw Pact occupation.Dark Ages, although this is controversial.

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Lithuania would not become finally independent of Russia until 1990.Arts of the late modern period11 Chapter 8 Europe since 191411.In 1947, Spain was declared a kingdom, but without a monarch; not until 1969 did Franco establish Juan Carlos of Bourbon as the heir to the monarchy.Germanic peoples and Huns.Celtic Britons in Britain were conquered by the Romans, but the Roman garrison was abandoned in 410 AD.Spanish Netherlands, and the Italian states of Naples, Sicily, Milan and Sardinia.

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States and territories of the Late Middle Ages included:British Isles included England and Wales, Ireland, and Scotland.The Grand Vizier, the senior minister of the sultans, became powerful figures with time.Included the kingdoms of Sicily and Naples.At about 1000 it included Lombardy, the March of Verona and Aquileia, the March of Tuscany, and the Duchy of Spoleto; but excluded Venice and the Papal States.There were many other movements.In 1435, Charles VII of France concluded the Treaty of Arras with Philip, ending the civil war and gaining the support of the Burgundians against the English.In 1422 Henry V of England and Charles VI of France both died, in August and October respectively.

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Grigory Zinoviev, Lev Kamenev, and Joseph Stalin.He proclaimed himself the first Emperor of Austria as Francis I in 1804, and later archdukes of Austria would also be emperors of Austria.Canada was ceded to Britain.They patronized many intellectuals associated with the Renaissance; these included Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Niccolò Machiavelli, Galileo Galilei and Sandro Botticelli.Archduke of Austria, but only between 1519 and 1521.Crusader states were then established, and included the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the Principality of Antioch, the County of Tripoli and the County of Edessa.Soviet Union by the West.

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Croatia today is Croatia proper, Slavonia, Istria and Dalmatia.Leading figures included:Saint Dmitry Donskoy.South and Central America was mainly Spanish, with the Portuguese in Brazil.It was characterised by the Cold War, in which much of the World would be divided in two groups, largely divided by communist and capitalist ideologies; a flurry of proxy wars occurred between the two dominant superpowers, the USA and the Soviet Union.Eastern Roman Empire, continued after the fall of the Western Roman Empire.Protestant secularization of the earlier Teutonic State.This ended the Abbasid Caliphate and Islamic Golden Age, and the region was made part of the Mongol Empire.

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Muscovy, also known as the Grand Duchy of Moscow.Reformation and suppress heresy; it included the Spanish Inquisition, the Roman Inquisition, and the Portuguese Inquisition.The Renaissance began in Italy 14th century, and continued into the 17th century.Russia, with Alaska becoming a state.By the time of the 11th century, the majority of Europe was Christianised, with the exception of some Baltic states and eastern Scandinavia, and Islamic Iberia.

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Anatolia from the Byzantines.Now partly Swiss, French and Italian.Norway, and other states would gain territories.Germany, Italy, Japan, and Thailand.Will no one rid me of this turbulent priest?

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Joseph Stalin, who had been General Secretary since 1922, gradually became an absolute ruler; working with Nikolai Bukharin, he had his great rival Leon Trotsky, along with Zinoviev and Kamenev, ousted from the party in 1927; in 1929 Trotsky was exiled, and then murdered in 1940.He was given the dukedom by his father John II of France.Other aspects of the contemporary periodNapoleon entering Berlin, 27th October 1806.The Iranian Intermezzo ended with the rise of some Islamic dynasties in the Middle East of Turkic and mamluk origins.Holy Roman Empire, but it is more often called the Carolingian Empire, named after the Carolingian dynasty.Territories within the Imperial Circles are sometimes considered to make up the Kingdom of Germany.Day commenced the Allied invasion of northern Europe, the second stage of conflict on the Western Front.

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Grand Duchy of Vladimir; founded by Andrey Bogolyubsky, its capital was the city of Vladimir.Other ports with Hanseatic trading posts, and cities with a Hanseatic communities.Only San Marino was to remain independent, although Vatican City achieved independence in 1929.English rule to all of Ireland; he also oversaw the legal union of England and Wales.Florida ceded by Spain.

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Age of Revolution10.Later on, the Moors would conquer Sicily from the Byzantines, and the Normans would then conquer Sicily and southern Italy.Africa, Egypt, and the Middle East.Anatolian Beylik; his father Ertuğrul had ruled the town of Söğüt.The First Industrial Revolution of the 18th and 19th centuries, particularly in Europe and the USA.Mongol tradition, they assimilated control of the Golden Horde, and took up the Kipchak language as a common tongue, which survives as the root of some Turkic languages such as Kazakh and Tatar.Papal States, which were provided with a legal basis with the Donation of Pepin in 756, which conferred upon the pope various territories.

It included Latin translations of Arabic sources.The Kingdom of León was so named as the capital was shifted from the city of Oviedo to the city of León in 910.Crusader territories were reclaimed, including the key towns of Acre and Jaffa; the crusader state of the Kingdom of Cyprus was established.The Principality of Liechtenstein achieved independence.United States, was a period of rapid growth in industry.The battle helped to establish the foundations of the Carolingian Empire, and Frankish domination of western Europe.

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Unmarried, she was succeeded by James I of England.The Committee of Public Safety and National Convention were abolished.Benito Mussolini became Prime Minister of Italy in 1922.First row: Antonio Vivaldi, Johann Sebastian Bach, Georg Friedrich Händel, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven.He also quelled some rebellions.By 947, the former Francia had divided into four kingdoms: West Francia; East Francia; Kingdom of Italy; Kingdom of Arles.Japan built an extensive empire from 1894.

USSR: in Europe they consisted of Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, and Moldova; and the Baltic states of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia.The fall of Granada in 1492 ended the Muslim rule in Iberia.According to Serbia, it includes the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija, and the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina.Persian Sunni Islam empire, founded by the Oghuz Turk warlord Seljuk Beig.Meiji Restoration in 1868.

The French Revolutionary Wars temporarily ended with the Treaty of Amiens 1802, but would flare up in 1803 with the Napoleonic Wars.Islamic dynasties, and would survive until the Mongol invasions.The war weakened the Holy Roman Emperor and the Habsburgs, with power returned to the Imperial Estates.Islamic expansion in Arabia.In 1938 Germany annexed Austria; Czechoslovakia was then annexed by Germany, Hungary and Poland.Republic of Venice succeeded in capturing Tyre.Nationalists defeated the Republicans, and Franco would remain dictator of Francoist Spain until his death in 1975.

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Henry II of France; three millions deaths can be attributed to them.Baltic states of Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia achieved independence.His reign resulted in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, and his execution in 1649.Late modernism was after World War II, and it was followed by postmodern art.Late eighteenth century10.His colonial empire included, most importantly, the Viceroyalty of New Spain, which included the Spanish East Indies, Spanish West Indies, and a substantial portion of North and Central America; South America included the Viceroyalties of New Granada, Peru and Rio de la Plata.

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They eventually fell to the Mamluk Sultanate of Cairo.In July 1918, the former Russian Emperor Nicholas II, and his wife Alexandra and their five children, were executed.Lithuanian Commonwealth between Russia, Prussia, and the Austrian Monarchy; it was instigated by Catherine the Great of Russia, Frederick the Great of Prussia, and Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor.The Roman Catholic religion has been challenged throughout its history.Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, and Lusatia.Philip I of Castile, who was by right of his wife King of Castile for a short time before he died.

Turkish Wars continued from the 16th to 20th centuries.Decolonisation gained traction, with European colonial empires in Africa and Asia gone by 1975.Bourbon monarch, who ascended during the turmoil surrounding the French Wars of Religion.Wittenberg; Margrave of Brandenburg.Spain: democracy was restored in Spain in 1975, with a constitutional monarchy.Other factors included the weakening of the army and the economy; ineffective rule of the emperors and civil administration; and internal struggles for power.Louis IX of France against the city of Tunis in Tunisia.

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Duke of Cumberland; the English king at the time was the Hanoverian George II.There was also a rise in witch trials between 1580 and 1630; over 50, 000 people, mostly women, lost their lives, and religious tensions may have been a factor.Spain during the late modern period10.In 1812, France was enlarged with territories such as the Low Countries and parts of Italy; and had client states such as the Confederation of the Rhine, Switzerland, the Kingdom of Italy, the Kingdom of Naples, the Duchy of Warsaw, and Spain; and had allies such as Austria and Prussia.India; and the Turkish Ottoman Empire around the Mediterranean and Black seas.

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Protestant Bohemian Reformation who followed Jan Hus.Montagnards, Girondins, and Maraisards.Omar Khayyam was a Persian mathematician, astronomer, and poet, who devised a very accurate solar calendar.Classical music composers montage.British and French improved their relations, and marked the end of almost a thousand years of intermittent conflict between them.Allied Powers defeating the Central Powers.French, avoiding open conflict and concentrating on skirmishes, although there was also a series of battles.

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It would expand over the territories of the Seleucid Empire.Allies would eventually defeat the Axis powers.Eastern Roman Empire, survived the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476.All English territories in France were lost by 1453, with the exception of the Pale of Calais.It was overthrown by the Marinid dynasty.

Denmark and Norway, as the North Sea Empire.The Kingdom of Lower Burgundy, which was composed of Cisjurania and Provence, joined in 933 to form Arles.War, although warfare was extended during the period 1688 and 1763.Stuart brother of Charles II, and the last Catholic monarch of England.European nations that worked out a program for rehabilitation.Louisiana was divided along the Mississippi River: the east was ceded to Britain, and the west was ceded to Spain.

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It would fall mainly to the Seljuk Empire and the Ghurid dynasty.Wikibooks, open books for an open worldA Brief History of EuropeA Brief History of Europe is a free content online book published on English Wikibooks.South Vietnam and its allies.Republic of Kosovo in 2008.He was succeeded by Louis XIII, Louis XIV, Louis XV, and Louis XVI.Carinthia, and Lombard, Saxon and Spanish March territories.The end of the war marked the beginnings of the Cold War.

Andalus separated from the Abbasid Caliphate.Tatars was a general term used by Russians and other Europeans for Turkic peoples of the Golden Horde, but can be used more specifically for the speakers of the Tatar language.Brittany was inhabited by Celtic Britons.UK, with British Empire building and industry at its peak.Joan of Arc in 1430 and later sold her to the English.

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Three partitions took place in 1772, 1793, and 1795.Emperor was also king.Jerusalem and the Holy Land.France, primarily between the French and the English.As industrial work forces grew in Western Europe, socialism and trade union activity developed.Prussia would de facto lead the North German Confederation of 1867, which gained a new constitution as the German Empire in 1871, under the permanent presidency of Prussia.

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Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia.Apart from his military successes, he was seen as a leading monarch of the Enlightenment.British and French; African possessions included German Kamerun, German South West Africa, German East Africa, and German Togoland.First Turkic Khaganate, it stretched across Asia from from Manchuria to the Black Sea.German states from almost 300 to just 39.She was married to Philip II of Spain, and she attempted to reverse the English Reformation.Russia and Sweden clashed without territorial changes.

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European speakers, Europe included:Turkic peoples: early Turkic peoples included Khazars and Bulgars; they may have included Huns.Kipchak Khanate, was originally a Mongol, and later Turkicized, khanate founded by Batu Khan, a Mongol warlord who followed the Tengrism religion.After the Norman conquest of England, the English Plantagenet dynasty would rival the French kings for France.An estimated 30 to 80 million people were killed under the rule of the Mongol Empire.Russia had expanded to the Pacific Ocean.Spain lost Portugal, but still held the Spanish Netherlands, and a greater part of Italy.

Other major Orthodox Churches include those of Russia, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia, and Bulgaria.Towards the end of the republic, great generals gained control, including Marius and Sulla.The new Constitution of the German Empire was then adopted, with Germany under the permanent presidency of Prussia.Kingdom of France at first under Louis XVIII.Charles of Provence and Lothair II had both died, and Francia had become:West Francia, which contained parts of Lotharingia, and some of Provence; ruled by Charles the Bald at that time.

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He expanded the empire, and founded Constantinople and the Constantinian dynasty.Paris uprising immortalised in Les Misérables.Crown of Aragon included Aragon, Catalonia, Valencia, and Majorca.During the High Middle Ages, the Mongols, would sweep across Asia, and influence the development of Russia and the Middle East.Starting in North Africa and Sicily, it spread to Egypt, the Holy Land, and western Arabia, but lost its territories to the west.Henry II would gain the following titles:Duke of Normandy, and Count of Anjou, Touraine, and Maine: inherited from his father Geoffrey Plantagenet in 1150.

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Spanish and Portuguese influence, but this was ignored by other nations.Battle of Mohács, he was curtailed by the Austrians at the unsuccessful Siege of Vienna of 1529.Soviet Union, Poland, East Germany, Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary; but Albania withdrew in 1960.Mongols originated from Mongolia, and spoke the Mongolian language; they were a group of steppe nomads.Volga Bulgaria, a historic Bulgar state.

Henry II by his wife Eleanor and his sons Young Henry, Richard, and Geoffrey.Iranian Safavid dynasty; he also expanded the North African territories.But Rome had acquired imperial character from the 130s BC with the acquisition of Cisalpine Gaul, Illyria, Greece and Hispania; and with the acquisition of Iudaea, Asia Minor and Gaul in the 1st century BC.France, western Egypt, and most of Greece; by 1947 it had lost them all, but Italian Somaliland would then become its protectorate.Russian Empire 1867 to 1915.Teutonic Wars between the Kingdom of Poland and the State of the Teutonic Order.Consisted of the Kingdom of France and the Holy Roman Empire.

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Norsemen, or Norwegians, inhabited the petty kingdoms of Norway, and would migrate from there as Vikings.Reconquest of Constantinople: Nicea was later able to recapture much of the Latin Empire and Epirus, including Constantinople in 1261, and the Byzantine Empire continued as a weakened Greek state.Spanish colonies in Africa included Northern Spanish Morocco, Spanish West Africa, and Spanish Guinea.They gained independence from the Emirate of Córdoba.Around the Mediterranean Sea, there were peoples such as Phoenicians, Carthaginians and Assyrians; Archaic Greece; and Etruscans and the Roman Kingdom in Italy.

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Russia, Ukraine and Belarus.Lorraine returned to France, its colonies taken, was disarmed, and was forced to make reparation payments.Sobrarbe and Ribagorza would be annexed by Ramiro I of Aragon.Calais was held by the English until 1558.Aquitaine as an independent and much enlarged territory than before the war.

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Ottoman conquest of Egypt in 1517.Vikings would give rise to Normans, descendants of Vikings who settled in Normandy, and would conquer England and south Italy in the High Middle Ages.Many Bosnian Serbs and other Bosnians opposed the Austrian annexation; Serbia was sympathetic to them, and the Black Hand, a secret military society formed by officers in the Army of the Kingdom of Serbia, had helped the assassins.In North America, the British, French and Spanish dominated.Louis XVI would retain his throne.

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Spread throughout Europe, they were not Hanseatic members, but closely related to Hansa.Principally it was British America against New France and its Indian allies.World War II11.Jews from Spain, although Jews who converted to Christianity escaped expulsion.Thirteen Colonies until the Declaration of Independence of the Second Continental Congress on July 4, 1776.Eastern Slavic language like Bulgarian.Victorian era of the United Kingdom, characterized by great national confidence in empire and industry.

Hungary included Transylvania, and the Voivodeship of Serbia and Temes Banat.Norway and Sweden; the Dutch Republic; and England and Scotland.Napoléon was crowned Emperor of the French, replacing the Consulate.It remained the centre of the Holy Roman Empire for its lifetime, and is sometimes considered as the Kingdom of Germany.It would later expand to other European countries.English gained command of the seas.

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AD; it is sometimes referred to as the Dark Ages, as there was a relative scarcity of literary and cultural output in Western Europe.There was widespread destruction, and the only major cities to escape this were Novgorod and Pskov.European wars of religion of the 16th, 17th and early 18th centuries, were largely a result of the religious differences stemming from reform.Plantagenets would divide into two cadet branches; the House of Lancaster and the House of York.After that Italy was nominally within the Holy Roman Empire until 1801, but power was lost.Lord of the Netherlands.

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Notable events during this period included:United Nations: founded in 1945 it replaced the ineffective League of Nations.Allied occupation of all of Italy by 1945.German philosopher Immanuel Kant, and the doctrine of transcendental idealism.Louis XVI and most of the Assembly to return with them to Paris; Louis took up residence in the Tuileries Palace in Paris.Included France and Switzerland.The British Empire rapidly expanded in this period, and eventually included India, Australia and much of Africa.Edward III and Robert the Bruce.

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Vasili IV was tsar between 1606 and 1610, but this was disputed, and there was numerous other usurpers and imposters.May 8, 1945, after the defeat and occupation of Germany by the Allies.Manifest destiny was the 19th century imperialist cultural belief that the United States were destined to expand across North America.East Francia, first ruled by Louis the German.Other artists included the sculptor Donatello, Titian, Sandro Botticelli, Masaccio, Giotto, Paolo Veronese, Tintoretto, Giovanni Bellini, Filippo Lippi, Paolo Uccello, and Antonio da Correggio.After Barcelona was conquered by the Moors, the city was retaken by Franks in 801, led by Louis the Pious.

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Balkans states: included the Kingdom of Hungary, which included the Banate of Bosnia, Croatia, and Transylvania.Genghis Khan founded the Mongol Empire in 1206; it eventually covered most of central Asia from the west to east.But by 1914 European colonization outside of the Americas had greatly increased.It ended with the Sunni Revival, a rival of Sunni political power.Simón Bolívar led the secession of Venezuela, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Panama from Spain.

Other European colonialism10.Iberia, and would be known as Moors.Later on Gothic architecture was used widely between the 12th and 16th centuries.Bridge of Montereau; the future King Charles VII was implicated in his death, making the Burgundians enemies with the future king of France.Picts, who may have been Celtic, inhabited Scotland.

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This ended the Plantagenet dynasty, and began the Tudor dynasty.Reformation: was a period of Catholic resurgence in response to the Reformation.Frederick I on 18 January 1701.Prussia, the Kingdom of Prussia, and the German EmpireThe first branch was the Swabian branch who ruled Zollern, a county in the Holy Roman Empire which from 1218 was called Hohenzollern, and whose capital became Hechingen.He sent the Spanish Armada to invade Protestant England in 1588, which ended in failure; several state bankruptcies also occurred during his reign.

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Anglicanism was created by Henry VIII, and became the dominant religion of England as the Church of England; it incorporated aspects from the Reformed and Lutheran churches.French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Era.Islamic Arab dynasty, ruled Palestine, Transjordan and northern Arabia.Surviving long after the Seljuk Empire, it declined after defeat by Mongols.Charles V was succeeded by Philip II of Spain, Philip III of Spain, Philip IV of Spain, and Charles II of Spain, the last Habsburg ruler of Spain.

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The Ayyubids were eventually overthrown by the Mamluk Sultanate.War, and French and Indian War10.They had protectorates in southern and eastern Arabia and Kuwait.Josip Broz, also known as Tito, would later become the Yugoslav leader.Italy, the northern peninsula, which had expanded to include most of Provence; ruled by Louis II of Italy at that time.

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Mongols circa 1240s, and its principalities became vassals to the Golden Horde by 1294.The High Renaissance, with Leonardo da Vinci, early Michelangelo, Raphael, and the architect Bramante, was between circa 1495 to 1520; it ended with the death of Raphael.Almanzor, the powerful chancellor of the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba between 978 and 1002, waged many campaigns against the northern Christian kingdoms.Ivan the Terrible conquered the Khanate of Kazan, Astrakhan, and Sibirean khanates.He oversaw the English Reformation, with the establishment of the Anglican faith and Church of England, and the Dissolution of the Monasteries.The principles were that no important change take place without the consent of these Great Powers, and that a the balance of power be maintained.

It was claimed by the Holy Roman Empire, but with time its power would wane.World War II summary11.Capitalism and mercantilism10 Chapter 7 Late modern period until 191410.East of the Byzantines was ruled by the Abbasid Caliphate.Nazi Germany, and Germany withdrew from the League of Nations.

Jerusalem between 1229 and 1244.Parliament and the army of William of Orange, mainly over his religion.North Germanic peoples included: Danes, Swedes, Geats, Gutes and Norsemen.The British expanded Canada, and had other American, Caribbean, and Atlantic colonies.Carlists were instrumental for the Nationalists during the Spanish Civil War.

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Peoples included the Lithuanians, Latvians, and Old Prussians.These would all fall to Russian expansion.War, after the capture of the French king John II.Parliament of England became the Parliament of Great Britain; in 1801 it became the Parliament of the United Kingdom.The Kingdom of Italy was roughly the Italian Republic north.

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Europe into spheres of influence.Austrian Monarchy, Russian Empire, Bourbon Spain, and Sweden.The proclamation of the German Empire in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles, 18 January 1871.It made some books forbidden, such as On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Sphere by Polish scientist Nicolaus Copernicus; first printed in 1543, it promoted the heliocentric theory of the Solar System.Osman I of the House of Osman.German reunification in 1990.

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Sunni dynasty of Turkic origins.Visual arts and architecture movements and periods, from circa 1750 onward, included:Rococo, or Late Baroque, emerged circa the 1730s to the 1760s, as highly ornate styles in architecture and arts.Avar Khaganate in the 6th century, before falling to the Bulgars.After the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 came German reunification in 1990.Since that time the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches have remained separate.

The High Middle Ages was accompanied by a rapid increase in population; this would grind to a halt in the 14th century, as Europe would enter a period of crisis.Hungarian relations with Italy, Serbia, and Russia.East Francia, which contained most of Lotharingia; ruled by Louis the German at that time.Conferences and aftermath11.Eventually fell to the Byzantines.Ethiopia was invaded by Italy in 1935.Austrian Monarchy, Kingdom of Prussia, and Russian Empire.

Habsburgs against the French Valois kings for Italian possessions, principally the Duchy of Milan and the Kingdom of Naples.Byzantine sphere of influence.Classical Greece ended in 323 BC with the death of Alexander the Great, who had acquired a huge Macedonian empire which included much of Greece and the Middle East, including the Persian Achaemenid Empire.Byzantine Empire reached its greatest extent since the fall of the Western Roman Empire.French victory over the Spanish.

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Roman people entering the empire after fleeing from Huns.Andalus; they were ruled by Muslim Arabs and Berbers known as Moors.The League of Nations was founded in 1920 to maintain world peace.During the 14th, 15th, and early 16th centuries.Slavic peoples: Bosniaks, Bosnian Serbs, and Bosnian Croats.

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Arts and Crafts movement was between circa 1880 and 1920, and stood for traditional craftsmanship.This would lead to Portuguese dominance in trade routes around Africa, particularly in the spice trade for around a century.Muslims and Christians, before being conquered by Aragon in 1238; Murcia was temporarily a vassal.It also included the Balkan peninsula, Anatolia, and the Holy Land.The Republic of Venice, Papal States, and the Holy Roman Empire were in the north.World War I; and as the leading figure of the Turkish National Movement he won the Turkish War of Independence.

Accession of Bulgaria and Romania in 2007The 2014 Ukrainian revolution had armed conflict in the regions of Donetsk and Lugansk, after attempts to cede to the Russian Federation.Chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War.Francia by 800 covered much of the former Western Roman Empire, with most of Western and Central Europe; but not including Iberia, Britain, Jutland, Brittany, southern Italy, Venice and the Papal States.Charles II was succeeded by James II of England.The Anglican Communion would spread to become the third largest Christian communion.The French Revolutionary Army was greatly strengthened by Lazare Carnot.Principality of Antioch, a crusader state first ruled by Bohemond I of Antioch, a Norman.

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It was another Scottish victory; David II, who had been captured by the English in 1346, was released in 1357, and Edward Balliol surrendered his claim to the throne.Charles being succeeded by his son Philip II of Spain.There was an expansion of Turkic tribes over Asia and Eastern Europe.In 1800 Spain returned its portion of Louisiana to France; but Napoleon Bonaparte in turn sold it to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803.He was Duke of Burgundy through his father Philip I of Castile, who had inherited his dukedom from his mother Mary of Burgundy.Afghanistan, gaining its greatest extent around 1200, including territories from the Ghaznavids and Seljuks.

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Arabs and Berbers would become prominent with Islamic expansion from the seventh century, and would be commonly referred to as Saracens and Moors.Western Slavic and mainly Sunni Muslim; they make up about half of the population of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which also has many Serbs and Croats.Mercantilism, the exporting goods from countries, also rose in importance, particularly as a result of colonialism, with the trade of slaves and goods across the Atlantic Ocean being particularly important.Under this treaty, Henry V also formed an alliance with the Burgundians under Philip the Good.Europe, including much of Italy and the Habsburg Netherlands.

Art Deco emerged in the 1910s as a popular modern art movement, particularly with architecture and design.Cathars in southern France.Czechoslovak Communists seized control of the country in 1948.United States Virgin Islands.This was followed by La Conquista, the Spanish colonization of the Americas by the conquistadores.Sweden as a great power.

Constantinople became the capital of the Byzantine Empire.Portuguese interregnum crisis, with the English supporting Portugal and the French supporting Castile.James Edward Stuart with the support of Spain.They began with the United Kingdom declaring war on France in May 1803.Eventually Constantinople would fall to the Ottomans in 1453.

In 1189, a rebellion by his son Richard, with Philip II of France, was finally successful, and the defeated and ill Henry II died at Chinon in Anjou.The House of Hohenzollern was a German dynasty from Hechingen in Swabia, who took their name from Hohenzollern Castle in the Swabian Alps.Reign of Terror, particularly those of the Jacobin Club which was suppressed and disbanded.Constantinople was finally captured by the Ottoman Turks in 1453 led by Mehmed II the Conqueror, and the Byzantine Empire was soon annexed to the Ottoman Empire.Eisenhower was made Supreme Allied Commander in Europe.Andalus was later ruled by the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad Caliphate.Louis IX of France ceded lands north and east of Gascony to Henry III of England, in exchange for homage liege to the French monarch, and the renouncement of claims to many territories that had been lost by King John.

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The Turkic Crimean Khanate, established in 1441, was one of the strongest powers in Eastern Europe until the 18th century.Eventually fell to the Byzantines and the Avar Khaganate.Prussia and the Kingdom of Prussia.He also had hegemony over all of Italy, with only Savoy and Venice having true independence.It was also the Age of Discovery, and vast colonial empires ruled by European countries would result.Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July, who they blamed for the assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand.Events of August 1914: Germany declared war on Russia, and then France and Belgium; they would invade France through Belgium according to the Schlieffen Plan.

Great Charters were also issued in 1217, 1225, and 1297.After these wars, most mainland European colonies in the Americas were lost.Second row: Gioachino Rossini, Felix Mendelssohn, Frédéric Chopin, Richard Wagner, Giuseppe Verdi.Since the 13th century the Holy Roman Emperor had began to lose power and territory.Neoclassicism, began circa 1760 in opposition to the Rococo style, and continues to the present day.In 1947, the British Empire had begun a process of voluntarily dismantling with the granting of independence to India and Pakistan.Edward V, who reigned for 78 days, but was never crowned.

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Italy fell to the Byzantine Empire.Maria Theresa of Spain.Gascony was the endpoint of the conflict.Poles occupied Moscow between 1610 and 1612.Note the presence of: Seljuk Rum, Zengibs, Ghurids, Abbasids, Khwarazmians, Almohads, and AyyubidsThe Islamic Golden Age continued into the High Middle Ages.Following the 1989 revolutions, dissolution of the Soviet Union and Warsaw Pact was in 1991.

USA, UK and France merged their German zones in 1947 and 1948, which became West Germany in 1949, as opposed to East Germany.This ended in 1740 after the reign of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI.The countries are:Serbia.James II; but they were defeated.Aftermath of World War II: there were between 50 to 85 million fatalities, mostly civilians in the Soviet Union and China.

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They subsequently sacked the city and destroyed the copious libraries, including the House of Wisdom; hundreds of thousands of people were killed in the region.Kingdom of Asturias, would consolidate power and have numerous victories over Islamic and Christian opponents.The House of Habsburg were Holy Roman Emperors between 1440 and 1740, beginning with Frederick III, the Peaceful.World War II to the present day.Greek successor states were established in Nicaea, Epirus, and Trebizond.African colony of the American Colonization Society, now the Republic of Liberia.Russia greatly expanded in the early modern period.

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The Quadruple Alliance, minus the UK, also formed the Holy Alliance that same year.Mithridates I of Parthia conquered many of their lands.They took place mainly in Scotland, with the backing of Catholic Scottish Highlander clansmen; the Williamite War took place in Ireland.The 1618 Defenestration of Prague was when two Catholic nobleman, who represented Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II, and their secretary, were thrown out of a window of Prague Castle by protesting Hussites; all three survived the fall.Prelude to World War I11.

Battani greatly advanced trigonometry.There were numerous other events; 1848 was also the year of the publication of The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.Kurdish Sunni Muslim who overthrew the Fatimid Caliphate of Egypt, and switched allegiance to the Abbasid caliphs.Navarre continued under the House of Jiménez, until acquired by the counts of Champagne in 1234.Roman Kingdom and Roman monarchy.The Sasanian Empire itself was toppled in 651 by the Rashidun Caliphate in the Muslim conquest of Persia.

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It would decline to other dynasties.Presbyterian and predominantly Calvinist; John Knox was one of the leaders.Brief History of Europe covers European history from the fall of Rome to the present day.The English House of Lancaster King Henry V succeeded Henry IV in 1413, and reasserted the claim to the French throne of Edward III.Ireland, and later Scotland.After the Transcontinental Treaty of 1819, the Spain ceded Florida to the United States.

Industrialization and cultural changes10.Egypt attempts to nationalize the Suez Canal.This covers the late modern period until 1914.Russia and other countries during this period, in many cases defeating far larger armies.Norway participation ended, and their nation would then decline.

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Other powers had lessened influence, such as Spain, Portugal, and Sweden.But the dukedom would continue with the Free County of Burgundy and the Burgundian Netherlands, passing to the Habsburgs and Habsburg Spain, with Philip the Handsome, who was also King Philip I of Castile.In all seven popes reigned during that period; they were all French, and heavily influenced by the French kings.Fourth row: Edvard Grieg, Edward Elgar, Sergei Rachmaninoff, George Gershwin, Aram KhachaturianEuropean arts can be divided into many Western art movements and periods.Prussian branch, which included the Electors and Margraves of Brandenburg, 1415 to 1806.It also marked the end of Hungary as an independent territory until the 20th century.United States; with a Union victory, it maintained its territorial integrity with the dissolution of the Confederate States of America; slavery was abolished, and it was the beginning of the Reconstruction era.

War when it was lost by the English.Papal States, and the duchies of Lucca, Massa and Carrara, Modena and Reggio, and Parma; and San Marino.During this period the Holy Roman Emperor was also the Archduke of Austria, although Charles V was only archduke for two years.The leaders for the Habsburgs were the Holy Roman Emperors Maximilian, Charles V and Ferdinand I; and King Philip II of Spain; their supporters included Henry VIII of England and Mary I of England.Habsburg wars ended Ottomans expansion into Europe.Triangular trade of slaves and goods across the Atlantic OceanAge of Discovery was from circa 1400 to 1800.Razi was a Persian polymath and physician, and an early proponent of experimental medicine.

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There was also the formation of seminaries for the training of priests; the Jesuits, a new religious order, began missionary work, as well as the Augustinians, Franciscans, and Dominicans.The rise of Turkic and mamluk dynasties of Sunni Islam also ended the Iranian Intermezzo.Included the Christian kingdoms of Castile, León, Navarre, Aragon, Portugal.Medici is particularly associated with this patronage.Rulers of states of the Holy Roman Empire around 1300 included the Houses of Wittelsbach, Luxembourg and Habsburg.

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In 1714, long after his reign, the Spanish Netherlands, Naples, Milan and Sardinia were ceded to Austria, and Sicily was ceded to Savoy.Magyars ruled Europe north of the Black Sea.García Sánchez III of Pamplona.Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor.European speaking peoples, other than Germanic peoples, included:Celts were widespread across Europe:Celtic Britons inhabited England and Wales, and also Brittany.Of the Germanic tribes, Franks would become the dominant Germanic tribe on mainland Europe by the end of the eighth century, outside of Scandinavia.Richard II is shown twiceAround 1300, centuries of prosperity and growth in Europe came to a halt, and Europe entered a state of crisis.

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Zinoviev, Kamenev, and Bukharin.In 1936 Ethiopia fell to the Italians, and only Liberia remained independent.It ended with the modern period of history, which began in 1500, or with the fall of Constantinople in 1453.Henry III was succeeded by his son Edward I, also called Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots; Edward I was then succeeded by his son Edward II, also called Edward of Carnarvon.Sigmaringen during the period of 1576 to 1849.

The Portuguese established a large number of trading posts around the coasts of India, the East Indies, Africa and Arabia.Swedes, Geats, and Gutes.Ribbentrop Pact, Eastern Europe was occupied by Germany and the Soviet Union.At other times they would be divided into taifas, which were independent Islamic principalities ruled by emirs.The House of Habsburg would have important wars against the Ottoman Empire, and the French in Italy; they would also gain the Spanish crowns.

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Charles, however, maintained his possessions in southern Italy.Habsburgs and the Ottoman Empire for European territories.Lorraine was secretly annexed by Germany, and some border areas were annexed by Italy.Congress of Vienna was completed with the Final Act in 1815.Its status with the Kingdom of Italy is disputed.

French Republic against Great Britain, Austria and others, sparked by the overthrow of Louis XVI.Castile and León; during the 11th and 12th centuries, they would be in personal union at times.Petersburg in 1712, which remained there until 1917; he also won the Great Northern War in 1721.It happened after the death of Gregory XI in 1378, who had moved back to Rome in 1376.The rise of Islam created a rivalry with the Byzantine Empire, and Iberia would soon be conquered by them.

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Surrealism started in 1917, and applied aspects of dreams and reality.Austrian Empire, France, Prussia, Russia, and the United Kingdom.Turkic mamluk Sunni dynasty, followed the Abbasid rule in Egypt and the Levant.Henry II as heir to the crown.Great Charter of 1216, to try to appease the barons.Norman kingdom that would include Sicily, southern Italy, some of northern Africa, and Malta.

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Middle East there were the Western Iranian Persians and Kurds.Suzdal, and the Grand Duchy of Moscow; they also ruled the Tsardom of Russia.Mark Antony and Cleopatra.Distinct from the French Duchy of Burgundy, which was a separate territory.The tetrarchic system lasted until civil wars eliminated most imperial claimants; Constantine the Great gained control of the entire empire, after defeating Licinius at the Battle of Chrysopolis in 324 AD.

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Realm of the Turks, overthrew the Ayyubids.English throne between 1216 and 1217.Although Arab efforts to achieve unified independence failed, Allied victory in World War I assured the end of the Ottoman Empire.Followers are usually called Muslims.Kingdom of Naples, officially the Kingdom of Sicily, continued in southern Italy, under the House of Anjou.

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Ayyubids regained Jerusalem; Louis IX of France was defeated in Egypt by an Ayyubid and Bahriyya Mamluk army.The invention of the printing press, which was greatly improved by the German Johannes Gutenberg circa 1439, helped in the dissemination of learning.The Paris Commune, who ruled Paris, became dominated by Jacobins in 1792, and would became insurrectionary that summer; it lost much power in 1794 and was replaced in 1795 by the French Directory.Milan was lost to the French in 1796.They had possessions in Europe.From the eighth century, Arab and Iranian dynasties were both Sunni and Shia; Turkic dynasties were dominated by Sunni Islam.

Outside of the Holy Roman Empire it initially included the Duchy of Prussia.He described over 200 surgical instruments, and used catgut for internal stitching.South Africa, to connect the Atlantic and the Indian oceans.Italian colonization included in the Balkans, Italian East Africa, Italian Libya, and territories in the Western Mediterranean and Far East.In 1532 Pizarro conquered the Inca empire in Peru.

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Henry V captured Rouen, the capital of Normandy.Late Middle Ages and modern period.It is related to Art Nouveau.Hungarian Compromise of 1867.West Slavs would settle in Eastern Europe areas south of the Baltic Sea.

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Huge technological developments occurred, particularly in computing and communications.The Kingdom of Upper Burgundy established from 888, was composed of Transjurania and the County of Burgundy.The French had previously beaten the Prussians at the Battle of Ligny two days earlier.There was renewed interest in Classical Roman and Greek texts, but also translations of Arabic texts.Around the Baltic Sea there were Finnic Estonians and Livonians; and Baltic Tribes, composed of Balts, including Old Prussians, Lithuanians, and Latvians.The English were led by Edward III and his son Edward the Black Prince.Duke of Aquitaine: from marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine, Duchess of Aquitaine, in 1152.

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Holy Roman Empire would further weaken it as a unified entity.Norwegian Norsemen unified from the petty kingdoms of Norway.The French Valois kings opposing them were Charles VIII, Louis XII, Francis I, and Henry II; their supporters included Suleiman the Magnificent.Prussia and Russia, Napoleon created the French sister republics of the Kingdom of Westphalia, the Duchy of Warsaw and the Free City of Danzig.Basques speak the Basque language, a language isolate which is closely related to the the Aquitanian language spoken by Aquitani.Shia Moroccan dynasty that gained Morocco.

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Italy, Germany, Belgium, Japan and the USA established empires.Filippo Brunelleschi was one of the foremost architects and engineers.Persian Sasanian Empire; this included the 626 siege of Constantinople.Charles Martel commanded the Franks at Tours, and established the Carolingian dynasty of Frankish kings.Byzantine Empire and to the eastThe Byzantine Empire ruled the southern Balkans and Anatolia.Fighting took part on the Crimean peninsula and around the Black Sea.Clan MacDonald of Glencoe, allegedly for failing to pledge allegiance to William III and Mary II.

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It would fall mainly to the Delhi Sultanate and Khwarazmian dynasty.To this day they control the Azores, Madeira, and Savage Islands.European dynasties; they would include Milan, Florence, Genoa, Pisa, Lucca, Cremona, Siena, Città di Castello, Perugia, and others; and see Venice below.It would gain much territory both inside and outside of the Holy Roman Empire and successors.Ramiro I of Aragon, the first king of the Kingdom of Aragon in 1035, as the County of Aragon became a kingdom.

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Jazari was an Arab polymath who wrote The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices, describing many mechanical devices.Peter the Great moved the capital to St.In January 1871 the German Empire was declared, which now included the southern states of Bavaria, Württemberg, Baden, and Hesse.Western Front was little changed until 1917.Volhynia was later divided between Poland and Lithuania.

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Philip II was succeeded by Philip III of Spain, Philip IV of Spain, and Charles II of Spain, the last Habsburg ruler of Spain.Massa and Carrara, and Lucca; and the Republic of San Marino.Edward Balliol, the son of a former Scottish king, was backed by Edward III of England; he demanded the return of his ancestral lands, and when these were not forthcoming he invaded Scotland and claimed the crown, despite the David II already holding the title.He would also obtain many Islamic territories; Córdoba, Murcia, Jaén, and Seville would become Christian kingdoms within the crown.Mesopotamia and western Arabia, with other autonomous rulers adhering to nominal Abbasid suzerainty, but with de facto independence.In many cases it was a triangular trade; manufactured goods from Europe would be exchanged on the western coats of Africa for slaves; these slaves would be exported to North and South America, and the West Indies; and raw goods would be exported back to Europe.Fall of communism11.

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Holodomor, widely seen as genocide against the Ukrainians, as well as alleged genocide against the Kazakhs.Prominent scientists included Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz, who built on the earlier work of Francis Bacon, the father of empiricism.It was composed of a number of principalities and other territories; the city of Kiev was the nucleus of the state, and it was ruled by the Grand Prince of Kiev.There were a total of eight million fatalities, including soldiers and civilians.In France, the House of Bourbon would ascend to the throne, and later on would gain the Spanish crowns from the Habsburgs.Ruled by the House of Hauteville, they would lose control of Sicily in 1194.In 1774, the First Continental Congress attempted to create at a separatist government.

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House of Lancaster and the House of York:The House of Lancaster, symbolised by the Red Rose of Lancaster, supported the continuing reign of Henry VI.Europe during the Middle Ages and modern period.Erich von Manstein formulated the plan for the battle.Sancho III was also suzerain of the French Duchy of Gascony, and the County of Barcelona.Belgians also controlled Rwanda and Burundi.

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The British West Indies included large territories such as Jamaica and the Bahamas.Portugal openly refused to join the Continental System.Normans would conquer southern Italy and Sicily between 999 and 1139.Duke of Burgundy and the Old Swiss Confederacy and its allies.Lepidus, would form an alliance called the Second Triumvirate.Pop art, from the 1950s onward, was so named as it glorified and expanded upon popular culture.Lotharingia territory was returned to East Francia from West Francia.

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After Thermopylae, Xerxes of the Achaemenid Empire ordered the Destruction of Athens.Hawaii was annexed, and became a state.In 1137 the Kingdom of Aragon and County of Barcelona were merged by a dynastic union, creating the Crown of Aragon.Visigoth Pelagius of Asturias defeated the Moors, and the Christian Kingdom of Asturias was founded after it.The were many territorial changes, but major ones included:Russia obtained most of the Duchy of Warsaw, and kept Finland which they had annexed from Sweden in 1809, and which they held until 1917.Their rulers were Mongols, and later on Tatars, with Tatars being a term for the Turkic peoples of the Golden Horde.Protestant northern German states was formed; this excluded the Austrian Empire and the mainly Catholic southern German states.

Charles VII would eventually be victorious over Henry VI.They would gave rise to modern Swedes.The Second Industrial Revolution was the rapid industrialization between late 19th century and early 20th century.But the Abbasids would be recognized as caliphs by most dynasties that followed, and there were also later political revivals.Napoleon during the Peninsular War.Mehmed expanded the Ottoman Empire particularly over Anatolia and the Balkans.

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Remus was killed either by Romulus or by one of his supporters.North Africa and Carthage; Corsica; Sardinia; Sicily.By 1214 the Angevin Empire had ended, in that the only French land that remained under the House of Plantagenet were lands in Gascony in southern Aquitaine.He is venerated as a Saint in the Orthodox Church.Romanticism in art and music was circa 1780 to 1910, and was in part a reaction to modernity.Italy, the northern peninsula, ruled by Louis II of Italy.Umayyad Caliphate was defeated by the Byzantine Empire.

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Gradually, decolonization resulted in the loss of these African colonies by 1975, accelerated by the devastation of the world wars.Suleiman the Magnificent, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, defeated Louis II of Hungary, King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia, who died soon after.In 1478, Ferdinand and Isabella launched the Spanish Inquisition primarily to identify heretics, especially among the conversos, those who converted to Catholicism from Judaism and Islam; Tomás de Torquemada was the first Grand Inquisitor between 1483 and 1498.Saxon invasions from the east.Other Germanic peoples affected included Lombards, Burgundians, Suebi, Frisii, and Alemanni.In 1519 the crowns of Aragon and Castile would enter personal union with Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor; from then onward they remained in personal union.

Philip II of France, Richard I of England, and the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa.Protestant Tudor king like his father; he died at the age of 15.The 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide.It can be considered to start from the fall of Rome in 476 AD, or from the 500 AD.Eastern Slavic and mainly Orthodox Christian, and make up much of North Macedonia.Lutheranism was based on the teachings of Martin Luther; Lutheran churches became dominant especially in the north of Germany and in the Scandinavian countries.It would disintegrate to many other khanates in the fifteenth century.

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Austria, France, Russia and Sweden.Battle of Poitiers, the Frankish leader Charles Martel defeated the Umayyad Caliphate.West Indies colonies were slower to gain independence or would remain dependent.Christians from Islamic rulers, and their surrounding territories became Christian kingdoms.Principality of Catalonia, within the Crown of Aragon.Rise of capitalism: capitalism became a dominant force in the sixteenth century, with the abolition of feudalism.Twelve countries were part of the founding of NATO: the European countries of Belgium, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, and the United Kingdom; and the North American countries of the United States, and Canada.

The Kingdom of Majorca, a realm on the east coast of Spain and the Balearic Islands, became a vassal in 1279, joining with the kingdoms of Aragon and Valencia, and the Principality of Catalonia.The House of Lancaster would rule first, with the reigns of Henry IV; and then his son Henry V; and then his son Henry VI.After the fall of the Athenian tyranny in 510 BC, Cleisthenes put Athens on a democratic footing in 508 BC.Background to World War II11.Holy Land sites, then under the Ottoman Empire.

Genoa, Florence, and Savoy; the Duchy of Milan became part of the Spanish Empire, as well as the southern states of Naples, Sicily, and Sardinia.Pope Urban VI in Rome resulted in the establishment of rival Antipope Clement VII in Avignon, who was succeeded by Antipope Benedict XIII in 1394.Napoleon was permanently exiled to St.Included Spain and Portugal.State of the Teutonic Order was secularized as the Duchy of Prussia, and paid homage as a vassal to the Polish king; it entering personal union with Brandenburg in 1611.

Kingdom of France under Louis XVIII.The coronation of Charlemagne by Pope Leo IIIFrancia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks and Frankish Empire, grew from 481 onward into a mighty empire, which was known from 800 as the Carolingian Empire.He dissolved the Holy Roman Empire after the Austrian defeat by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz, but continued as Emperor of Austria until 1835.Bayreuth; and Dukes of Jägerndorf.Its unofficial name was its capital city.

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Atlantic slave trade was a major source of wealth to Europe and its colonies; beginning with the Portuguese in 1526, it reached a zenith between 1780 and 1800.Louis was eventually defeated, as the barons defected to Henry III.Classical learning and culture.It later included British Burma, Ceylon, Malaya and Singapore; and in Thailand.Russian Enlightenment with advancement particularly in the arts.Was dominated by Castile, Portugal and Aragon.

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Turkish state covering Anatolia and Eastern Thrace; the Turks defeated Greece, the United Kingdom, France, and Armenia.Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon, who had brought about the dynastic union of Castile and Aragon.Outside of Iberia, the crown would obtain a great overseas empire in the New World and other places.Valdemar I of Denmark saw his country becoming a leading force in northern Europe.It ended the period of population growth that had started around 1050.Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria, all capitulated to the Allied Powers in 1918.

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Lorraine was annexed by the Germans.Contributors included famines and plagues, revolts, and wars.He was a leading proponent of enlightened absolutism, and a supporter of the arts, such as the composers Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Antonio Salieri.They took lands from other dynasties, including from the Iranian Buyid dynasty and the Turkic Ghaznavid dynasty.In the early 14th century Anatolia the declining Seljuk Sultanate of Rum was mostly divided into independent Turkish principalities known as the Anatolian Beyliks.It was eventually conquered by the Russian Empire in 1783; this ended Turkic rule in Europe, except for the Ottoman Empire.

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The Savoyard state was founded by Humbert I, Count of Savoy, who died in the 11th century.Australasia; New Zealand; Antarctica; and Hawaii.Baroque composers included Johann Sebastian Bach, Antonio Vivaldi, George Frideric Handel, Claudio Monteverdi, and Henry Purcell.Most of the Two Sicilies, and much of the Papal States, were annexed by Sardinia in 1860.It attempted to reconcile the philosophy of Aristotle with the theology of Augustine of Hippo, using both reason and faith.

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Sweden kept Norway, which they had obtained from Denmark.Charles VII the support of the Burgundians.War, they would be a military might during the Northern Wars, before losing the Great Northern War.The Catholic city of Zara was also sacked by crusaders.Lesser northern Italian states at that time included Siena, Modena, Ferrara, Lucca, Montferrat, Saluzzo, Asti, and Mantua.

Sweden mostly gained territories as a result of this war.Lombards, with the Byzantine Empire to the south of Benevento.Orthodox Tewahedo Churches of Ethiopia and Eritrea.Louis Napoléon Bonaparte ruling as Emperor Napoleon III.Second Spanish Republic, fought and lost against the Nationalists, led by General Francisco Franco.

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Julius Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus.With the European Economic Community and European Union, Europe would enter an era of free trade and movements of many Europeans, with some degree of political union.Iberia and southern France.West Francia would go on to form the Kingdom of France.Internet, creating profound changes.In 1384 he gained the counties of Artois, Burgundy, Flanders, Nevers, and Rethel, from the inheritance of his wife, Margaret III, Countess of Flanders.The Crisis of the Late Middle Ages was a series of famines, plagues, peasant revolts, and wars, that devastated European populations.

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Summa Theologica; written between 1265 and 1274, it was a treatise on theology that drew from a wide range of philosophical sources.Slowly, these states would became independent from the French and British.Gascony from Edward I of England in 1295.Italy and its surrounding islands.Turkic empireTurkic migration was between the between the 6th and 11th centuries.Russia was expanding into the Danubian Principalities, then vassals of the Ottoman Empire.

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Alfonso XII of Spain.After the Time of Troubles, the House of Romanov ruled Russia, beginning with Michael I, and ending with Nicholas II, the last tsar of Russia who was deposed in 1917.Slavic and mainly Sunni Muslim.United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland.Imperialism continued, especially with Scramble for Africa; but the Ottoman Empire would decline during this period, and with the Spanish American wars of independence and other decolonisation, most empires would eventually be lost.Ottomans were defeated after a two month siege of the city.Austria, which became the First Austrian Republic in 1919, a much reduced state in terms of territory.

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French clergy to the French government.Aquitaine, where the Franks defeated the Umayyad Caliphate, helped to establish Frankish dominance.Prussia and the lands of the Austrian Monarchy.Holstein would be lost to the Germans.Austria over Sardinia, without territoral changes.

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Emperor Otto I the Great, was a union of East Francia and Italy.Other than the Abbasid Caliphate, there was many other Islamic dynasties in the Islamic world.Stuart monarch of England, and subsequent monarchs would rule Scotland, England, Wales, and Ireland.Burgundian lands between Louis XI of France and the House of Habsburg.Russian Alliance was created with agreements between 1891 and 1894.Slavic Croats, developed from the earlier Duchy, and would enter personal union with Hungary in 1102.Emirate of Córdoba, which became the Caliphate of Córdoba in 939.

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Expressionism in art and music, is a modernist movement from the early 20th century onward.Britain returned Florida back to Spain after the American Revolutionary War in 1783.The Greek Orthodox Church includes the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, and the Greek Orthodox Patriarchates of Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem, and the Churches of Greece, Albania, Crete and Sinai.Roman world of ancient Greece and ancient Rome.Sancho III would conquer the Kingdom of León, taking its eponymous capital city in 1034.It would fall to Khwarezmia.French annexation of the Austrian Netherlands, the Left Bank of the Rhine and other smaller territories.

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Seljuk Turk splinter state in Anatolia.In March 1939 the UK and France promised to defend the independence of Poland.Originally a Seljuk Turk vassal, it continued for a while after the Seljuk Empire, before falling to the Mongols and Ayyubids.The Brandenburg Gate is a symbol of Berlin, Germany, and to some extent Europe.Constantinople was retaken in 1261, and the Byzantine Empire would then continue until the Fall of Constantinople, in 1453 to the Ottoman Empire.

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East Slavic and Finnic people.Venice remained unconquered, the Papal States were under the rule of the pope, and the Byzantine Empire maintained territories in the south.Also see the section Turkic migration.Tulunid dynasty would fall to the Abbasid Caliphate.The Holy Roman Empire was east of France.Crimea led to its annexation to the Russian Federation as the Republic of Crimea, which is largely unrecognized.The East India Company was a British charted company founded in 1600; it seized British possessions on the Indian subcontinent, South East Asia, and Hong Kong.

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The first government was the Government of National Defense.Soon after the death of Muhammad, Muslims were divided into two major Islamic branches: Shia and Sunni Islam.But Russia and Prussia would continue to rise to become major powers in European affairs.Iberia by the Umayyad Caliphate from the Visigoths, who by 624 had gained control of all of Iberia.Greece came under the hegemony of Sparta.

Spanish lands in the Americas would be mainly divided into Viceroyalties: New Granada, New Spain, Peru, and Río de la Plata; and also Spanish Louisiana, and many other islands and territories.Turkic khaganates and khanates in Asia and eastern Europe.With the Reformation, Protestants would break with the Catholic Church, leading to the European wars of religion.They consisted of:Hansa Proper: Hanseatic cities in territories divided into quarters.Bulgarians, Serbians, Hungarians and Albanians in the Balkans.The Turks were led by Mustafa Kemal Pasha, who became known as Atatürk.

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As well as the French Duchy of Burgundy, they gained control of the Free County of Burgundy, and the Burgundian Netherlands, as well as other lands.Main seas of piracy were the Caribbean Sea, the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, and the Red Sea.Hohenstaufen but rather House of Welf.Norway lasted from 1814 to 1905.In 1917, the Central Powers achieved victory on the Eastern Front, with Russian capitulation.

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Arabian Peninsula, and a century of large and rapid expansion into north Africa, Iberia, and the Middle East and beyond.He tripled the territory, annexing the Novgorod Republic in 1478, and the Grand Duchy of Tver in 1485, the main rivals to Muscovy.Soviet Union in 1940.Persian Empire, and officially called the Empire of Iranians.Russia would develop from the rise of the Grand Duchy of Moscow, also called Muscovy; see the Rise of Muscovy.

Hungary, and Slavonia, were gained by the Habsburgs.The war confirmed the Bourbon rule of Spain over the previous Habsburg monarchs; but Philip V had to renounce his place in the French succession; he also lost the Spanish Netherlands, Naples, Milan and Sardinia to Austria, and Sicily to Savoy.Other European theaters included: Bohemia and Moravia; Westphalia, Hesse, and Lower Saxony; Upper Saxony; Brandenburg; and East Prussia.Louis XVIII were preceded by Provisional Governments.William II and Robert Curthose, Duke of Normandy.

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This commenced the European theatre of conflict.Eventually fell to Islam, Asturias and Francia.Edward V and his brother Richard were kept in the Tower of London, and they were later called the Princes in the Tower.Artists included Velázquez, Caravaggio, Rembrandt, Rubens, Poussin, and Vermeer.The late modern period started circa 1750 or 1800, and ended circa 1945 or at the present day.Remaining Papal States were annexed by Italy in 1870; in 1929 Vatican City was established with the Lateran Treaty.

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Kosovo region of Serbia, there was fighting between the Serbs and the ethnic Albanian majority.Holy Roman Empire civil war aspects.Louis IX died, and the crusade was inconclusive.Lithuania became a protectorate of the Russian Empire in 1768.Lithuania; it ended with significant Russian territorial gains.

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French from Portugal and then Spain.Cuba, Panama, Honduras, Nicaragua, Mexico, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic.Revolutions of 184810.Philip financed the Holy League, who would have a great naval victory against the Ottomans at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571.Sunni caliphate that succeeded the Umayyad Caliphate.

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European war of religion.BC, following the Battle of Actium in 31 BC.Republics of Genoa and Pisa, were starting to assert de facto independence, as well as expanding their territories, including Genoese Corsica.Tribunat, and Corps législatif; the Sénat conservateur directly advised the First Consul.After the Great Northern War, the Commonwealth would further decline.Slavic Bohemians, the ancestors of Czechs.

Magyar tribes, also called the Hungarian clans, migrated west, and conquered the Carpathian Basin starting in the late ninth century to create the Principality of Hungary.Khan is a title for a sovereign or a military ruler, used by Mongols living to the north of China.Until the discovery of the Mycenaean Civilization, it was the first known period of Greek history.The Dutch discovered Australia in 1606, and New Zealand in 1642; both of these would later colonised by the British.Italian makeup:Kingdom of Sardinia was restored to include Sardinia, Piedmont, Genoa, Nice, and Savoy.

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Gaels, Faroese, and Icelanders.There were invasions by the Huns, but also by Avars, Slavs and Bulgars.The can be seen as beginning with the invasion of Europe by the Huns in 375, and ending with the conquest of much of Italy by the Lombards by 568; but sometimes it is extended from circa 300 until circa 800.Aragon and Castile into the crown of Spain.Liberia remaining independent in 1914.After that the Byzantine Empire was partitioned: the Latin Empire of Constantinople was a crusader state, which had crusader vassal fiefs such as Thessalonica, Achaea, Athens, and the Archipelago.In the 1330s, outbreaks of the Black Death ravaged the Ilkhanate, causing it to disintegrate.

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With the splintering of Abbasid rule they became the first independent dynasty to rule Egypt, as well as much of Syria, since the Ptolemaic dynasty.Christianity: is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the teachings of Jesus Christ as described in the New Testament.Lorraine were the following:Monarchs of Austria between 1282 and 1918, as dukes, archdukes or emperors, or female equivalents.Clovis was a member of the Merovingian dynasty of Frankish kings, between 450 and 751.Revolutions of 1848 created insurrection across Italy; the Sicilian revolution of 1848 created independence in Sicily for 16 months.King Charles I of Sicily was forced to leave the island of Sicily by Peter III of Aragon.Iranian plateau after domination by the Arabs.

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World War II republic.The German Confederation included some of the Kingdom of Prussia and the Austrian Empire.Lithuanian Commonwealth sensed an opportunity and declared war on the Sweden, then ruled by the young Charles XII.Bourbon King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies.Calvinism spread to the Dutch Republic, Scotland and southern France, and to a lesser extent Germany, Hungary, and England.Grand Alliance, which included Austria, England and the Dutch Republic.Antipope John XXIII stepped down in 1415; and in 1417 Pope Martin V was elected.

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In 1202, in his Book of Calculation, the Italian mathematician Fibonacci helped to populise Arabic numerals.Carolingian renaissance, of the 8th and 9th centuries, was a period of renewed cultural and intellectual movements associated with the rise of the Carolingian Empire, and the Carolingian court.During this period, Shia polities controlled most of the Islamic world, including its core areas.Italian PeninsulaFrancia dominated the northern peninsula, and had hegemony over the Papal States.Many French nobles were active during the Crusades, where they were known as Franks.

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Haiti achieved independence from the French West Indies.Greek and Assyrian minorities.It was also the period of the rise of the Ottoman Empire, who would overthrow the Byzantine Empire and come to dominate the Balkans.There was also an emphasis on science.Irish Free State, of southern Ireland, achieved independence in 1922 following the Irish War of Independence.The Buyid control of Baghdad ended in 1055 with the Seljuk Turks.

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Shia Islam Arab dynasty.Mary had married the Maximilian I, the Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor.In an attempted power grab, John assassinated Louis I, Duke of Orléans, who was the brother of King Charles VI.Italian changes see the Risorgimento.Iran and Afghanistan, and all the way to the Indian subcontinent.The Abbasid Caliph, the supreme Sunni leader, and Baghdad came under the control of the Buyids; while the Sharif of Mecca was under the control of the Fatimids.

George Washington is one of the Founding Fathers of the United States, along with Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison.Migration Period was a period of barbarian invasions of Europe.Hundred Days Offensive resulted in over two million casualties.French throne of Edward III through his mother Isabella, the sister of Charles IV.British and German relations.

The Safavid conversion of Iran to Shia Islam, over the 16th through 18th centuries, turned Iran, which previously had a Sunni majority, into the spiritual bastion of Shia Islam.The War of the Roses ended in 1487 with defeat of the Yorkist rebel John de la Pole, 1st Earl of Lincoln.Romance language called Norman French.Kingdom of Aragon with Catalonia.Charles V was the last Holy Roman Emperor to be crowned by a pope, Pope Clement VII in 1530.There were also rival antipopes in Pisa during the period 1409 to 1415, after the controversial Council of Pisa.Persianate Sunni Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin.

Margaret of Anjou became the de facto ruler.English, led by Edward I, Edward II, and Edward III, against the Scots.Voltaire and Benjamin Franklin greatly influenced the French Revolution and the American Revolution.Impressionism in art and music, emerged early 1860s.The Mediterranean and Middle East theatre opened in June 1940, beginning with the Battle of the Mediterranean, and later extending to the Middle East, North Africa, and West Africa.

Helena, where he died in 1821.Islamic steward who claims to be a successor to Muhammad.Russian Empire; the Soviet Union was dominated by the Russian SFSR.Wilhelm I stands centrally on the left, and Otto von Bismarck appears in white.Langobardia Minor, which was the central and southern Lombards; this included the Duchy of Spoleto and the Duchy of Benevento.

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King Edward I of England to the Holy Land, then held mostly by the Mamluk Sultanate.Albanian diaspora especially in Kosovo, a disputed region of the former Socialist Republic of Serbia.Serbia was a Russian ally, so Russian mobilization had already commenced.The Age of Revolution would see many revolutionary movements, and was especially notable for the American Revolution and the French Revolution.Hussites; see earlier movements above.War: the French had a great rivalry with the British during this period, mirroring that of the Habsburgs.Slavery was abolished within the British Empire in 1833 under William IV.

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Franz Ferdinand was visiting Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina.It was partly successful, but failed to conquer Jerusalem; the fall of Acre in 1291 brought to an end the permanent crusader presence in the Holy Land.The Roman Inquisition began in 1542, and suppressed some aspects of the Renaissance.Romans, Celts, and Slavs.Popes resided in the Avignon, after manipulation by Philip IV of France.What would happen to the failing empire would be called the Eastern Question.Europe and a rival to Russia in Eastern Europe.

Major European colonial empires that followed the Spanish and Portuguese included:English Empire, from 1583, which in 1707 became British.It fell to the Empire of Alexander the Great after the defeat of Darius III.British Empire; it reached a territorial peak in 1921.Spain superstate if both monarchies fell to a single ruler; therefore the Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI claimed the throne.The Holy Roman Empire would get established as a powerful Germanic empire.Croatia between the ethnic Croats and Serbs.

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French; the French Grande Armée of circa 685, 000 troops had losses of circa 500, 000; the Russians lost a similar amount.Belarus, central and northern Ukraine, and parts of western Russia.Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor for three centuries.It saw the collapse of the Sassanid Empire, and the Byzantine Empire lost many territories.World War I summary11.Mongols under the command of Hulagu Khan.Classical Greece was roughly during the 5th to 4th centuries BC.

English philosophers John Locke and Thomas Hobbes, who both contributed to empiricism and social contract theory.War, although warfare continued in Iberia.South Slavs would settle in the Balkans.During the 10th century, the counts of Barcelona became progressively independent of the Franks, and acquired other Catalan counties.Hungarian lands were ceded to Czechoslovakia, Romania, Yugoslavia, Poland, Italy, and Liechtenstein.

In 1500 and 1512, the core of the Holy Roman Empire was divided into Imperial Circles.Christian Roman Emperor, and held the First Council of Nicaea in 325, the first ecumenical council; this created the Nicene Creed.Nafis was an Arab physician who first to described the pulmonary circulation of the blood.Medieval renaissances can refer to various movements in the latter half of the Early Middle Ages, and during the High Middle Ages.Republic of Turkey founded in 1923 after the Turkish War of Independence, and the end of the Ottoman Empire.Edward, who would later reign as Edward IV.

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The Norman Kingdom of Sicily fell in 1194 to Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor and House of Hohenstaufen.The Industrial Revolutions resulted in huge increases in mechanisation and industry.The Latin American wars of independence, the wars for independence of countries in Latin America mainly from the Spanish, were greatly influenced by the Napoleonic Wars.Dutch Empire, from 1581.Mongol empire of Sunni Islam; stretching across the Middle East and central Asia, it was seen as continuing the Mongol legacy.

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The 1814 campaign was the last time Sweden was at war.Nazi terminology; they considered the 1st as being the Holy Roman Empire, and the 2nd as being the German Empire.It was an elective monarchy, and usually held by the Austrian monarch.Crown of Castile included most of Iberia, and would encompass a huge colonial empire.Shia Century, with the Buyids, Hamdanids, and FatimidsThe Abbasid Caliphate had succeeded the Umayyad Caliphate in 750, and would survive until 1258.

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Picot line, with French influence to the north and British influence to the south.Naples and Sicily would later become reunited under the Crown of Aragon in 1443; but they would remain separately administered, only combined as the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in 1816.King Victor Emmanuel II, who had been King of Sardinia and Duke of Savoy.Scramble for Africa was the rapid colonization of Africa beginning in the late nineteenth century.He also acquired Polish territories during its partition.On his death in 1065, Castile was elevated to the Kingdom of Castile for Sancho II, his firstborn son.Dutch Republic gaining independence from Spain.

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Russian revolutions and Soviet Union11.Constantinople began to be known as Istanbul.Henry V and Catherine of Valois, who was crowned King of France in 1431.Napoleon Bonaparte seizing control on 10 November 1799 and becoming First Consul.They included enslaved Turkic peoples, but also enslaved Egyptian Copts, Circassians, Abkhazians, and Georgians.Beg Khan assumed the throne in 1313, and adopted Islam as the state religion.Arab dynasty of Shia Islam in northern Mesopotamia and Syria.

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Lorraine to the Prussians.Cardinal Humbert of Silva Candida, papal legate of Pope Leo IX.Its capital was Turin.Erwin Rommel commanded the Germans in the the North African campaign.The last vestiges of serfdom were abolished in Russia in 1861 by Alexander II.It was founded by Ardashir I of the House of Sasan, and it succeeded the Parthian Empire.The Euro adopted as a currency in 2002.

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It was followed by the Classical period of music; roughly between 1730 and 1820, it included Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven, and Franz Schubert.The Italian Wars were largely unsuccessful for the French.Imperial Circles consisted of Imperial Estates, ruled by Imperial Princes.The Holocaust, a genocide perpetrated by the Germans during the war, resulted in 17 million deaths, including 6 million Jews.Henry II before the assassination, but is likely to be inaccurate.In 1807, Napoleon resurrected Poland when he set up the Duchy of Warsaw.

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Constantinople and Rome over the other three seats of the Pentarchy; that is, Antioch, Jerusalem and Alexandria.Canterbury Cathedral in 1170.Both Austria and Brandenburg would gain territories both inside and outside of the Holy Roman Empire.Iranian Samanids and Saffarids.Big Three: with Roosevelt, Churchill, and Joseph Stalin for Russia.

This period of history can roughly be divided into the Middle Ages, and the modern period, and the contemporary period.Belgium separating from the Netherlands, mainly on the grounds of religion as Belgium was mainly Catholic, and the Dutch were mainly Protestant; Luxembourg, in the area were they spoke a German dialect called Luxembourgish, also received independence.French Revolutionary Wars10.Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicated and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918.Ferdinand II ruled Aragon as king, and Castile as regent after the death of Isabella.This was by Pepin the Short, the first Carolingian King of the Franks.

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Italian Wars, and was between France, Spain, England, and the Holy Roman Empire.England, a collapse of law and order.Islamic dynasty of Oghuz Turkic origin.Emperor Meiji in Japan, and a period of Japanese industrialization in which it emerged as a great power.This led to the annexation of Silesia from the Habsburgs.Britons had started to emigrate to Brittany towards the end of the 4th century.Kingdom of Arles joined.

Philip II of Spain, who was a staunch Catholic.Holy Roman Empire, the Margraviate of Brandenburg, the Duchy of Cleves, and the counties of Ravensberg and Ravenstein.Palatinate, Hainaut, Seeland, Holland and Friesland.Ayyubid state in Egypt, to later regain Jerusalem.Finland and the Baltic states.

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Westphalian, Austrian, Burgundian, and Electoral Rhenish Circles.East Asian theater began when Japan invaded French Indochina in September 1940, who they occupied.Sicily under the Crown of Aragon and House of Barcelona.Christopher Columbus landed in the New World in 1492.Anabaptism was an early offshoot of Protestantism, and Anabaptist churches would include the Amish, Hutterites, and Mennonites fellowships.

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Frederick fought in three Silesian wars against Austria.Russia losing territories and local influence.They would dominate trade in Northern Europe for the next three centuries, before gradually falling apart by the late 17th century.Bourbon monarch, the third restoration of the Spanish Bourbons; this continues to this day.Lithuanian Commonwealth and Transylvania.

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Golden Age of Piracy: spans the 1650s to the late 1720s.Founded by John Wycliffe, a 14th century English theologian, they played a part in the English Reformation.Luddites protested against the use of machinery, and committed acts of sabotage.British Empire and Royal Navy.Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippine Islands would be lost by Spain.The French had a capable general in Bertrand du Guesclin.They learned how to make paper from the Chinese, and built many paper mills in Baghdad.

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France gained some territories there from Spain.United States from ballistic strategic nuclear weapons.Sardinia then annexed the majority of Lombardy from Austria.Edward IV would reign for a further 12 years, before dying in 1483.They were joined by independent Dominions of the British Commonwealth: Australia, Canada, New Zealand and South Africa.

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Prussia rivalry, Prussia sought to increase its territory at the expense of Austria.Other revolutionary waves included the Revolutions of 1820 and the Revolutions of 1830.After that the dukedom was claimed by the House of Bourbon, before returning to the House of Habsburg, and then to the House of Bourbon again.Brazil becoming independent of Portugal.Geoffrey Plantagenet, the Count of Anjou.European, such as Turkic and Uralic peoples.

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As a form of classicism, it draws inspiration from classical antiquity.October 1940, the Battle of Britain was the successful defense of the UK from the German air force.Hungary, including Bohemia and Moravia.This ended the reign of Louis XVI; he was then executed in January 1793, followed by his wife Marie Antoinette nine months later.Bay of Pigs Invasion of 1961, Cuba requested nuclear missiles to deter a future invasion, causing a showdown with the USA.

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It began assert influence in the early 14th century, and became the main conduit of reunification and expansion.Edessa after its fall in 1144.It is estimated that over 12 million Africans were shipped across the Atlantic, until it started being outlawed, firstly by Denmark in 1803, and then Britain in 1807.Eastern Europe and western Asia, and was unified under Attila.Jerusalem was retaken by Muslims led by Saladin of the Ayyubid Sultanate in 1187, reverting to Christian control in 1229.

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Novgorod Republic, which prospered from trade in the Hanseatic League particularly in furs.In 1870, only 10 percent of Africa was formally under European control.Crusade of 1197, of Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor, resulted in the capture Beirut and Sidon from the Muslims in 1198.Isabella of France and Roger Mortimer.The dynasty converted to Sunni Islam from Buddhism.France into a modern state.The translation movement continued, which was the translation of texts into Arabic, especially from Persian and Greek.

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Tudor king after his father Henry VII.Edward IV, who then returned to London unopposed to resume his reign; with Henry VI, and his son Edward, Prince of Wales, dead.Norway, without territorial changes.Brandenburg in 1618, when John Sigismund, Elector of Brandenburg, became Duke of Prussia.Normandy, and the remaining English strongholds in Normandy soon fell.The Atlantic Revolutions was a revolutionary wave within the Atlantic World.

Enlightenment and enlightened absolutism, along with Catherine the Great of Russia, and Frederick the Great of Prussia.Shia imams as being legitimate.Sardinia was lost in 1718, and Naples was lost in 1720.North Macedonia, also called the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.Prussia, and Russia, among others; the French were allied with their client states.Japan and China10.

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Arab Shia Islam dynasty, controlled the Emirate of Aleppo.This created political fragmentation of the Islamic world, with much instability in dynasties and territories.In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war in support of the Central Powers, and opened fronts in the Caucasus, Mesopotamia and the Sinai Peninsula.North Africa and Carthage.Puerto Rico and Guam remain American.

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Iranian Shia Muslim dynasty.Moscow, and its peoples were termed muscovites.The investment of capital became the primary factor in the accumulation of wealth.Black Sea and Caspian Sea.Kingdom of Dublin, and the Duchy of Normandy.Third row: Johann Strauss II, Johannes Brahms, Georges Bizet, Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Antonín Dvořák.

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East Slavic peoples, Finns and Vikings.Algerian crisis of 1958.Various Italian states supported the factions.Hungarians; after gaining independence they would become vassals of the Ottomans.Kosovo, which unilaterally declared independence from Serbia in 2008; this is currently recognized by about 100 UN states but not Serbia.

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Enlargement of the EU in 2004: Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia.Norway also fought in the wars, as well as other states, in particular Prussia.He was made the first president of the German Confederation in 1815.The Mamluk Sultanate eventually fell to the Ottoman Empire.Russian Provisional Government, a coalition of various revolutionary factions, came to power.

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Norman kingdoms into one, which covered Sicily, southern Italy, and some north Africa.Umayyads by the Abbasids, but the Abbasid Caliphate was Sunni.Diseases affecting cattle and sheep also contributed.Spanish colonies in the New World were lost, except for Cuba and Puerto Rico.Archduchess of Austria, and as the daughter of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI she was House of Habsburg.Shia Iranian dynasty, which would rule lands in Mesopotamia and Persia during this time.Constantine is thought to be the first Christian Roman emperor, and was instrumental in the creation of the Nicene Creed.

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Slavic, and the Lithuanians were mostly Balts.The Jacobite risings were failed Catholic uprisings that sought to instate James II and his descendants; they are named after Jacobus, which is Latin for James.Outside of Africa, it also included German New Guinea and German Samoa.Just, and twenty of their allies were executed by the Thermidorians on 28 July 1794.Central Italy was united with Sardinia in 1860, but Savoy and Nice were annexed by the French that year.France sold French Louisiana to the United States.

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There were also artistic developments, including architecture, dance, fine arts, literature and music.For many years the Abbasids ruled from the city of Baghdad, and it became a central hub for learning and culture.Western Slavic and mainly Catholic Christian, and make up much of Slovenia and Croatia.Henry the Young King; the future King Richard I; Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany; and the future King John.The Maya and many other peoples were also conquered.

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Gonzalo of Sobrarbe and Ribagorza.Cuban President Fulgencio Batista.Rostov to Suzdal in 1125.Sultanate of Rum, they would go on to build a vast empire, including territories in Anatolia, eastern Europe, the Middle East, and northern Africa.The European Union formed in 1993 with the Maastricht Treaty.

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By early June 1941, only the UK actively opposed Germany in Europe; the Soviet Union and Germany were still at peace, and controlled much of Europe.Duke of Aquitaine Edward III.Related languages of the Britons are Welsh, Cumbric, Cornish, and Breton.World War I was largely based on the attrition due to casualties of troops, rather than decisive territorial gains.It would later considerably expand its territories, both inside and outside the Holy Roman Empire.In 1888 Brazil became the last Western country to abolish slavery.

There was also the Papal States and Venice, with Venice greatly expanding its territories along the coasts of the Mediterranean Sea.Catholicism and Lutheranism, and now Calvinism was also acceptable.John III Sobieski, the King of the Poland, helped the Austrians in the battle, along with a Holy Roman Empire army; the Winged Hussars, an elite Polish cavalry, delivered a final deadly blow.Slavic, and later Bulgarian, state.Scramble for Africa10.France when Henry III of Navarre became Henry IV of France in 1589.Philosophy, the arts, science and technology would greatly develop during this period, especially with The Renaissance and Age of Enlightenment.

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Habsburg states were mainly Protestant, with the notable exception of Catholic France.The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand was on Sunday, 28 June 1914; the Austrian heir was assassinated by Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb nationalist.Britain then declared war against Germany for violating Belgian neutrality, and sent the British Expeditionary Force to France.Eastern Orthodox church, officially the Orthodox Catholic Church, is a communion that includes many Orthodox churches.It also covers late antiquity, the rise of Islam, and the Middle East to some extent, as these are important to understanding European history.Archduke of Austria after 1521, and king of Bohemia, Hungary and Croatia.

Cape Trafalgar, Spain; this prevented a French invasion of England.Ostrogothic Kingdom including Italy and neighboring areas.After 1849 to the present day they continued as Heads of the Princely House of Hohenzollern.Suleiman the Magnificent was the Ottoman Sultan 1520 to 1566.Ukraine and Belarus were partitioned between Poland and the Soviet Union.Included the Kingdom of Sicily, which was under Norman rule from 1091, which included southern Italy by 1130.

There was religious turmoil with the crusades, and with the Great Schism the Catholic and Orthodox churches would separate.It started as France, Poland and the United Kingdom, and their dependent states.Berlin, resulting in the Berlin airlift to supply BerlinNorth Atlantic Treaty Organization founded in April 1949.Kassites in Babylonia, the Hittite Empire in Anatolia and the Levant, and the New Kingdom of Egypt.Hellenistic period empire founded by Seleucus I Nicator following the division of the Empire of Alexander the Great.National Constituent Assembly as legislative body, with government on the basis of a constitutional monarchy, a position favored by moderates such as the Count of Mirabeau.Enlightened absolutism, the use of the the Enlightenment to espouse absolute monarchy, was a curious side effect; much later it was followed by the concept of the benevolent dictatorship.

September 1792 by the National Convention.Rise of Turkey11.The Kingdom of León would unite with the Kingdom of Asturias in 924.Western Slavic and mainly Orthodox Christian, and make up much of Serbia and Montenegro.In 1547 it was followed by the Tsardom of Russia under Ivan the Terrible, and Russia would rise to dominate Eurasia with the Russian Empire.

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The UK evacuated their forces with the Dunkirk evacuation.Following the Great Northern War, Sweden would decline; eastern Sweden would be lost to Russia in 1809, which became the highly autonomous Grand Principality of Finland.Founded in the 1170s by Peter Waldo, they would come to influence Anabaptism in particular.Louis I of Hungary was was King of Hungary and Croatia from 1342 and King of Poland from 1370; he had many military successes.Russian coalition fighting against a Swedish coalition, for supremacy in Northern Europe.The Reconquista was the reconquest of Iberia by Christians.

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Protestant and the last Tudor monarch.The Byzantine Empire was oriented towards Greek rather than Latin culture, and characterized by Orthodox Christianity.Hungary sidelined in the rule of Germany.The office of Holy Roman Emperor, as it became known as, was a revival of the Roman Emperor in the west.Norway, Iceland and Greenland.

It failed to retake Jerusalem, but a treaty provided that unarmed Christian pilgrims and traders could visit Jerusalem.It coincided with the end of the Medieval Warm Period, with some of the worst weather of the Middle Ages.Hellenistic kingdoms after his death.Decolonisation gained traction during this period, with most territories of colonial empires made independent by 1975.It was an Arabic, Turkic and Circassian sultanate.Early Protestant movements included:Calvinism, or the Reformed tradition, was based on the teachings of Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and others; they included Presbyterians, Puritans, and Huguenots.

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July 1789, and is now commemorated on Bastille Day.The Risorgimento, or Italian unification, occurred between 1815 and 1871.Balts, lived near the Baltic Sea, and are related to Slavs.East Asian theater and China.After the American Revolutionary War in 1783, Britain lost its mainland territories outside of Canada.England and Scotland, and aspects of modernity.Prussia fought against Austria and its allies.

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Leopold II, and the last Holy Roman Emperor.Historical periodsHistory of EuropeClassical antiquityMiddle AgesEarly Middle AgesHigh Middle AgesLate Middle AgesModern historyEarly modern periodLate modern periodContemporary historyMany articles on English Wikipedia are used as sources.World War I to World War II in 1939.The guillotine was used in many executions during this period.Raphaelitess were influenced by romanticism.Huns may have been Turkic.

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Germanic origins, mostly south of the North Sea and Baltic Sea.Antipope Benedict XIII refused to step down and was excommunicated.Bosnia and Herzegovina include ethnic Bosniaks, Croats, and Serbs, and saw much conflict.States and territories of the late modern period10.He also fought with the French against the Habsburgs in the Italian Wars.West Francia began to be known as the Kingdom of France.

Nordic countries included Norway, Denmark, and Sweden, and lands of the Sami and Finns.In addition there was also the Greek Byzantines and Empire of Trebizond, the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, and the Mongol Ilkhanate to the east.Plague is caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, and most commonly it results in the bubonic plague with bubos.Age of Enlightenment or Age of Reason was during the 18th century, and sometimes extended to the 17th century.Persian Wars, Macedon, Thrace and Ionia would gain independence from Persia.French Directory and the French Revolution era; the French Consulate and Napoleonic Era began the next day.In the treaty the French recognized Philip II as heir to Milan, Naples, Sicily and Sardinia, among other agreements.

The lands directly controlled and taxed by the French king were known as the domaine royal; these would grow as the French kings became more powerful as the Middle Ages progressed.It ruled much of western north Africa and southern Iberia.Black Death, an outbreak of the plague, peaking 1347 to 1351.The arts: popular music became prominent in the 20th Century.There was widespread famine and devastation of the Low Countries as a result of the war.They gained gained political legitimacy in 911 when the Viking leader Rollo agreed to swear allegiance to King Charles III of West Francia, in exchange for ceding them lands, which became Normandy in northern France.

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Kontore: Hanseatic foreign commercial enclaves, forming the Kontor quarter.By the time of the 6th century, Christianity was dominate throughout Europe, but not including northern and eastern Europe, and Scandinavia.The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is the third Saudi state ruled by the House of Saud, and was founded in 1932 by Ibn Saud; it dominates the Arabian peninsula.Count of Nantes: by treaty in 1185, from which he partly gained control of the Duchy of Brittany.An estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilians died as a direct result of the war.Further afield it included Naples, Sicily, and Sardinia; Milan was recaptured by Charles V, and this was recognized by the French in 1559.Before World War II, the Anschluss was the annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany in 1938.

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Anatolia, and in 1095 the Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos requested military aid from Pope Urban II; Urban II responded by calling for war against the Seljuk Turks in the Holy Land.Holy Roman Emperors for most of the period 1440 to 1806.They expanded Australia and New Zealand.Louis XVI, and his subsequent capture, damaged his prestige.Italian territories; the lands of the Bohemian Crown were controlled by the Habsburgs.

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With its greatest extent in about 1092, it covered a vast area, including Palestine, and much of Anatolia, the Levant, Persia and beyond.At around 1800, European power was comparatively weak outside of Europe and the Americas; the larger empires there included the Russian Empire, the British Empire, the Ottoman Empire, Qajar Iran, the Chinese Qing dynasty, and the Indian Maratha Empire.Arab revolt against the Ottoman Empire to create a united Arab state.Persia conquered Macedon and Thrace, and established supremacy over the Aegean Sea.In South America they ruled the Viceroyalty of Brazil.From 1800 onward most of the colonies in the Americas would be lost, with the United States already independent; the largest remaining European colony would be Canada.Her persecution of Protestants gave her the nickname Bloody Mary.

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Catholic conspiracy to dethrone Charles II, perpetrated by Titus Oates; nine Jesuits were executed and twelve died in prison, and other Catholic religious orders were repressed.It was succeeded by the Sasanian Empire.During the Islamic Golden Age, science, economic development and cultural works flourished in the Middle East.The early modern period was characterized by the ascendancy of Russia, which curtailed the expansion of Sweden after the Great Northern War.Prussia and the House of Hohenzollern, the House of Bourbon in France and Spain, and the rise of Russia under the Rurik dynasty and House of Romanov.The Roman Catholic Church consists of the western Latin Church, and 23 Eastern Catholic Churches.French possessions in North America were thus reduced to the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, although they maintained islands in the Caribbean.

The victory of Prussia damaged the prestige of the House of Habsburg.Further afield, the Ottoman Empire lost a number of territories before 1914: Algeria and Tunisia to France; Egypt, the Yemen, and Cyprus to Britain; and Italian Libya to the Italians.The French imposed harsh terms on the Austrians.This resulted in the Spanish being particularly active in Americas, while Portuguese influence in the Americas was limited to Brazil.States and territories of the High Middle Ages included:Northern EuropeBritain Isles included England, Scotland, Wales, and Ireland.Venice took control of some areas, such as Crete.

Charles V allowed rulers within the Holy Roman Empire to choose either Lutheranism or Roman Catholicism as the official confession.Persian polymath who wrote the hugely influential The Canon of Medicine and The Book of Healing.There were also lands of Lapps and Finns.Outside of Italy, Renaissance ideas soon spread across Europe to countries such as England, France, Germany, Hungary, the Low Countries, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Croatia, and Scotland.North African Berber dynasties, such as the Almoravid dynasty, Almohad Caliphate, Zayyanid dynasty, Marinid Sultanate, and Hafsid dynasty.October 1793 many prominent Girondins were then executed, including Jacques Pierre Brissot.Portuguese philosopher Baruch Spinoza, a rationalist.

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Other notable artists included: the German artists Hans Holbein the Younger, Hans Holbein the Elder, and Albrecht Dürer; the Dutch artists Hieronymus Bosch, Pieter Brueghel the Elder, Pieter Brueghel the Younger, and Jan van Eyck; and the Greek artist El Greco.Today the majority of Muslims are Sunni, with Shia majorities only in Iran, Iraq, Bahrain, Lebanon, and Azerbaijan.They gained much of Persia and beyond, mainly from the Seljuks and Ghurid dynasty.Dutch Wars: were a series of four wars fought in the 17th and 18th centuries; largely a result of English and Dutch rivalry, mainly over trade and overseas colonies; most battles were fought at sea.The crusaders opened trade routes which enabled the merchant republics of Genoa and Venice to become major economic powers.French Polynesia, French Guiana, and the French West Indies.King John by the English barons; it guaranteed certain rights from the king, and was agreed at Runnymede, near Windsor, on 15 June 1215.

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Germany had conquered France, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands.In 1765 the First Congress of the American Colonies met in response to taxation introduced by the Stamp Act.Edict of Nantes, and resulted in further persecution.Vichy France to the south.In September 1939 the UK and France declared war on Germany after the Invasion of Poland, which included Germany and the Soviet Union.Moroccan Berber Sunni caliphate.

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During this period the King of Poland would also be the Grand Duke of Lithuania, although this personal union had existed since 1386.Sicily were conquered by the Spanish army during the War of the Polish Succession in 1734.Britain, France and Russia.The Austrian branch gained many dominions both inside and outside of the Holy Roman Empire.The Bulgarian Empire was partly South Slavic.

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The Dutch also controlled Surinam and the Netherlands Antilles.With the Diplomatic Revolution of 1756, Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette married, and Austria went from an ally of Britain to an ally of France, while Prussia became an ally of Britain.Balkans, with Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and the Greece joining the Allies in 1917.Persian Empire, established by Cyrus the Great in 550 BC with the conquest of the Median, Lydian and Babylonian empires.John reneged on the Great Charter, which he had annulled by Pope Innocent III.Ottonian renaissance, of the 10th and 11th centuries, was a similar phenomenon associated with the Ottonian period of the Holy Roman Empire.

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Hungarian Revolution of 1956, which was crushed by a Soviet invasion.The Geats may have given rise to the Goths, but this is uncertain.Northern Italy and other territories were turned into several French sister republics.Imperial Princes; and a college of Free and Imperial Cities.Hungary and Italy that excluded France.Middle East and Persia.

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The French had a great general in the Viscount of Turenne.Slavonia; the Habsburg Austrian Emperor was the monarch.Norway, invaded the Holy Roman Empire to support the Protestants, but was soon forced to retreat.The Roaring Twenties, a period of economic prosperity, would end with the Great Depression during the 30s.Saxony, Hanover, and Lorraine.

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It was suppressed at the Battle of Mello, with severe reprisals enacted against the peasants.Included the Papal States and Venice.There were sporadic wars in various theaters which did not directly involve the major powers, but instead were wars by proxy.Iberian Union of Spain and Portugal.There were many reasons for the schism, including doctrinal, theological, linguistic, political, and geographical reasons.

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Portuguese colonies in Africa included Angola, Mozambique, Guinea, Cape Verde, and São Tomé and Príncipe.There was fighting in Hejaz, Transjordan, and Syria.Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan.Fatimid Egypt; it was founded by Saladin, who had risen to be vizier of Fatimid Egypt.Transylvania fell to the Habsburgs in 1711.

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Bourbon France, allied with Sweden, fought against the Austrian and Spanish Habsburgs, despite France being Catholic.It stemmed from the claim to the Kingdom of Naples of Charles VIII of France, with the death of Ferdinand I of Naples.King Leonidas and 300 Spartans fought to the death to guard a retreat.Hispania was the Roman name for Iberia, which is now Spain and Portugal.By volume, the empires trading slaves were the Portuguese, British, French, Spanish, and Dutch Empires.World War I11.

Later on Abbasid political power would further diminish, especially with the rise of the Iranian Buyids and Seljuk Turks.At its height In 1683, the Ottoman Empire and its vassals stretched over the Balkans and Anatolia, Levant, western Arabia, Egypt and northern Africa.There were various colonial changes and restorations, such as Britain with Cape Colony, Tobago, Ceylon, and various other colonies.There were successful wars of independence in Finland, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia.The earlier Huns may have been Turkic.German relations with both France and the Britain.

Italy and the west Balkans, after the murder of Odoacer.Europe, whose religion was dominated by the Roman Catholic Church.After the War of the Burgundian Succession and various treaties, territories including the Duchy of Burgundy would be lost to the French king.The Space Age was established in 1957.It was a Savoyard state, a term used for all of the states ruled by the counts and dukes of Savoy until the Risorgimento.

English between 1420 and 1435 with the Treaty of Troyes.Berlin Axis in 1936, which was later widened to Japan.Nicaea and much of western Anatolia was also restored to the Byzantine Empire.Modernism was circa 1860s to the 1970s.